History of Lenawee County, Michigan - Chapter 31, City of Adrian

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CITY OF ADRIAN. The history of the city of Adrian properly begins with its incorporation and organization under the charter, Jan. 31, 1853, but a portion of the pioneer annals has been reserved for this chapter, in order that the record of the metropolis of the County might not be disassociated from the earher and important events. As has been heretofore stated, the village leas first given the name of Logan, but this was afterward changed to Adrian at -the suggestion of Mrs. Addison J. Comstock. The name has no local significance, as is frequently the case in. selecting names for cities and villages, but it was selected by Mrs. Comstock in honor of the noted Roman, who made the name a famous one in ancient history. And it was entirely fitting that this lady should be accorded the privilege of selecting the name for the future chief city of the County, for although she was not the first Caucasian of her sex to become a resident of the place-her arrival being antedated a few days by that of Mrs. John Gifford-she immediately assumed her rightful position as the "first lady" of the embryo village and was the wife of the founder and proprietor. Previous to the arrival of Addison J. Comstock the locality in which Adrian is situated was known only to the red man, a scattering remnant of the once powerful tribe known as the Pottawattamies, having their wigwams located on the flats near the river at the northeast corner of West Maumee and Greenly streets. At that time the river followed around the west bank of Lawrence Park. And it remained for Addison J. Comstock to take the first steps toward building up a civilized community and make for himself the distinction of being the founder of Lenawee's metropolis. To him is entitled all the honor that attaches to the term of "the first pioneer citizen." It was he who caused the first survey of the village to be made, he became the first clerk of the Township after its organization, was the first postmaster, donated the first land for public purposes, and later on, when the village had grown, to a city, was the first mayor elected by the people. Before Comstock's time there was nothing of Adrian but the river and a-beautiful location, the blue sky overhead and the bluffs and the swamps and the marshes round about, and the dark, unexplored wilderness surrounding it on all sides-a part of the Territory of Michigan. The name of Adrian and the name of its founder are as inseparably connected as the name of Watt and the steam engine are interlocked for all time. Comstock's life, public services and interesting career, are part and parcel of the city's history, and it can be truthfully said that before Adrian there was not much of Comstock, and before Comstock there was nothing at all of- Adrian. Coming here as a young man, before he had entered upon an independent career, but endowed with natural ability and excellent training for a life of usefulness, he was the first to introduce a civilized mode of living on the present site of the beautiful Maple City. An epitomized account of his career is given on another page of this volume. It was in 1828 that Comstock laid out the little village on the banks of the River Raisin, and it is from that date that the history of Adrian, as a hamlet or village, may be said to begin. The village was a small and mean one, apparently, and for a time its history was nearly devoid of interest. Like the knife-grinder, it had no story to tell, and the narrator of what little gossip there is about it may be told, as Macaulay was about his "History of England," that it is his story, and not history. Still, within the succeeding months and years, the foundations were laid for the city as it exists today, and it does not do, for cities, any more than individuals, to despise the day of small beginnings. It has always kept pace with the growth of the County, and has always had reason to congratulate itself that its founder had some conception, even if an inadequate one, of the flattering prospect before it. In the original plat, the village consisted of two streets, Main and Maumee, each about two blocks long, and they crossed each other at right angles, but Maumee, west of Main, was first called St. Joseph, and has never been legally changed, though by common consent it has long been known as West Maumee. Why the streets were not laid out with' respect to the cardinal points of the compass is unknown, but it was probably due more to thoughtlessness than design. The original plat contained forty-nine lots of nearly uniform size, with the exception of the one on the corner where Hart & Shaw's drug store is located, and that was laid out for a park, nine rods square, and was given to the village for the location of the court house and jail, it seeming even at that early date a certainty that Adrian would be the future seat of justice of Lenawee County. In 1837 this lot was sold to Dr. Underwood, who erected the corner drug store, which, in 185o, he sold to Samuel E. Hart. The first two or three years after it was platted the village grew quite rapidly, as the census of 1830, including Adrian Township, showed a population of 500 souls. On Dec. 26, 1826, Elias Dennis purchased of the United States the eighty acres of land which was known for a long time as the Dennis property and at a later date was sold by the heirs to L. G. and A. S. Berry, who platted the same, and it is now known as L. G. and A. S. Berry's southern addition to Adrian. This same year Addison J. Comstock built a saw mill just north of the present Maumee street bridge. In 1827 Noah Norton came and built a house just east of the present site of the St. Charles hotel Mr. Norton afterward emigrated to California, where he died. The first child born in Adrian was Leander Comstock, son of Addison J. and Sarah S. Comstock, born Aug. 9, 1827, and died Oct. 8, of the same year, being the first to be buried in the old burying ground. The second death was Mrs. Elias Dennis, in the spring of 1828, and the third was John Gifford, both of whom were also buried in the old cemetery. On Oct. 23, .1827, James Whitney purchased 40o acres of land of the United States, the same being situated on the west side of the river, and he then returned to Orleans County, New York, to Close up his business, moving to Adrian the next year.

A Fourth of July celebration was held in the little village in 1828, which shows that the inhabitants, though few in number, were filled with patriotism. This was the first celebration of the kind ever held in Adrian, and it is doubtful if there has been one since that was filled with more enjoyment to the participants. Extensive preparations were made, and at an early hour the people began to assemble around the stand which was erected for the occasion, and which was under a white oak tree near where George Wilcox's store now stands. It is estimated that some thirty or forty people were present, Addison J. Comstock read the Declaration of Independence, and Dr. Caleb N. Ormsby delivered the oration, after which the marshal of the day, Noah Norton, formed the procession and proceeded through the principal streets-through hazel brush to the house of Addison J. Comstock, where dinner had been prepared by Mrs. Comstock, assisted by the other ladies of the village. The County seat question was already prominent in the minds of the people, as is evidenced by a post-prandial toast given by Noah Norton, as follows: "0, Tecumseh ! Tecumseh How often would we have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her children tinder her wings, and ye would not." Bonfires and a dance in the evening ended the festivities of the day. It is said that the marshal was extremely fortunate in borrowing a pair of shoes of Eleazer Baker, who boarded with Mr. 'Norton, otherwise the latter could not have performed the duties assigned him as generalissimo of the occasion. In the early day hotels were in great demand, to accommodate the immigrants until they could build homes of their own. In 1828 Isaac Dean built the Exchange Hotel, a large wooden building, situated where the Maumee Hotel now stands. In 1859 it was torn down and the Brackett House was built, afterward called the Lawrence House, still later the Hotel Gregg, and at present the Maumee. The "Exchange" was a commodious structure for those clays, became very popular as a public resort, and was the "stage house" for many years. Isaac Dean, who thus became the first hotel-keeper in Adrian, was born in Plainfield, Conn., March 14, 1771. When a young man he learned the trade of carpenter and, mill-wright, and moved to Ontario County, New York, in i8oo, and there he owned a saw and grist mill and lived until his removal to Michigan. He arrived in Adrian May 20, 1828, and immediately purchased a village lot on the corner of Maumee and Winter streets, and there he built the first hotel, which was also the first frame building erected in the village. The house was formally opened July 4, 1829, when a dance took place in the ball-room in the second story, and the building was finished that year. Mr. Dean kept the house for about ten years, then rented it, and retired from active business pursuits. In 1829 he and his son-in-law, Addison J. Comstock, built the "Red Mill," Mr. Dean superintending the work himself. This was the first mill south of Tecumseh, and Mr. Dean started the mill and "ground the first grist." In the fall of 1833 he purchased eighty acres of land on the Territorial road, in Adrian Township, three and a half miles west of Adrian, and built a saw mill on the west branch of the River Raisin, which ran through the farm. He lived in Adrian until his death, which occurred March 3, 1858. In 1830 the French hotel was built where NAT. F. King's jewelry store is now located. Afterward it was rebuilt, with high wooden steps on either street, and it was then given the name of "Franklin House," but in 1846 it was burned, after which it was rebuilt on the lot immediately north of its old location, extended on both sides of Franklin alley, with the upper stories overhanging the driveway. In 1831 the St. Charles house was built and was known for many years as the Mansion House. Shortly after that the American House was built where the jail now stands, and the National Hotel was located where the Bliss abstract office is. Another hotel was built just west of the St. Charles, and was first known as the Burns House, later the Sammons, and finally the Hildebrant I-louse. Another was built where the street car barns now are. and still another was located just south of Monument Square, known as the John Post Hotel. Among other noted buildings of the early days, Tippecanoe Hall may be mentioned. It was built of logs and was situated on the rear of the lot where Wood, Crane & Wood Company's store building now stands. Prominent about it was the coon-skin on the front door and the cider barrel in the rear window, with its free faucet on the outside. Another landmark was the Universalist church, situated on Broad street, upon the site now occupied by the residence of George Curtis. At first it was merely enclosed, but after a few years it was remodeled into a boarding house and called the Streeter House. Then, after the burning of the Union school house, in 1866, it was used for school purposes until a new school building was completed. We will now return and take up events that were important in their way in laying the foundation of the splendid little city-the metropolis of Lenawee County. On June 2, 1829, Abijah Russel purchased 35.6 acres of land of the United States, and in May, 18311, he sold the same to Richard M. Lewis for eighty dollars. This land was known as the Lewis fraction for many years, until James Berry purchased it and divided it into lots. The land purchased by Messrs. Comstock, Gifford, Dennis and Whitney comprises nearly all of that on which the city of Adrian is located. In 1829 a post office was established in Adrian, with Addison J. Comstock as postmaster. The following somewhat amusing account, given by Mr. Comstock, and taken from a document prepared by him and deposited under the corner stone of the old Union school house, will show something of the condition of things in that early day: "The same year a post office was established in Adrian, A. J. Comstock, P. M. The conditions of establishing the office were that the contractor should take the net revenue of the office for transporting the mail from Adrian to Monroe. The whole receipts of the first quarter, ending March 11, 1829, was $8.6o The net revenue to the contractor, after paying expenses of Office, 90 3-4 cents. It should be remarked that the carrying of the mail was not expensive, as the postmaster took advantage of the ox teams that made regular trips to Monroe, and so obtained the mail about every week, as a trip to Monroe and back could be performed in about five days when they had good luck." The first dry goods store was opened by E. C. Winter, in 1829, in the front room of Dr. Ormsby's house, which stood on the southwest corner of Maumee and Winter streets. Mr. Winter afterward built a large wooden block opposite the site of the Maumee Hotel, and for many years he was a successful trader with the whites and Indians.

Dr. E. Conant Winter was born in Middlebury, Vt., Aug. 3, I8o2, and 'Was educated at Middlebury College, where he graduated about the year 1819. He afterward studied medicine, and in 1824 removed to Maumee City, Ohio, where he formed a partnership with his uncle, Dr. Horatio Conant, and practiced medicine for about one year, when he formed a partnership with Gen. John E. Hunt, of the same place, and began merchandising. Their store was a large one, and an extensive business was done with the settlers and Indians. Dr. Winter remained there until the summer of 1829, when he came to Adrian and opened the first store. In 18311 he erected a block of three store buildings on Maumee street, opposite the Michigan Exchange. He occupied two of the rooms with his goods, the third one being rented to families as they came in, until they could find other quarters or build themselves houses. R. W. Ingalls occupied a part of the upper rooms for his printing office. Mr. Winter did an extensive business until 1836, his store being headquarters for all the Indian tribes who then came to Adrian for supplies. He could speak the Indian language quite fluently, and was a well known and very successful trader. The Indians named him "McIntosh," and always called him by that name. In 1833, at the time of the great Indian treaty at Chicago, he took "a large stock of goods from Adrian and sold the entire lot during the council. In 1838, he conducted the Michigan Exchange, and in 1840 took in Lewis Follett as partner, which arrangement continued one year. He was subsequently elected justice of the peace, in Adrian, for three terms. He was among the principal projectors of the Erie & Kalamazoo railroad and assisted in its construction. He was also very influential in securing the removal of the County seat from Tecumseh to Adrian. In 1852 he went to California and Oregon, remaining in that region one year, and in 1854 he commenced the practice of electropathy, which occupation he followed until his death, being very successful both as a lecturer and practitioner. He died in Adrian, Dec. 22, 1867.

Rufus Merrick opened a cabinet shop in Mr. Winter's block, and in 1832 built a shop of his own. This gentleman was born in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, April 15, 18oo. He lived with his parents until the spring of 1817, when he went to Auburn, N. Y., and learned the cabinet-maker's trade with Abijah Keeler. He remained there until he was twenty-one, when he went to Kingston, Canada, where he worked six months and then returned to New York. He worked in Auburn one year, and in Eldridge, Onondaga County, eight years, and in 183o he came to Michigan, arriving in Adrian in October. There were but three frame houses in Adrian at that time. He immediately opened a cabinet shop, and during the first nine months his cash receipts were only seventy-five cents. There was no one to buy the products of his work, his services seemed to be not in demand, and there was but little money to do business with. But he struggled along until the tide of immigration set in, in 1834, and from that date for many years he flourished. In the summer of 1831 he purchased of Addison J. Comstock a mill privilege, and in the fall of 1832 he built a cabinet and chair shop, which he carried on for about twenty years. In 1854 be changed his shop into a flouring mill, and in 1856 he sold the property. For several years, in connection with his furniture shop and mill, he carried on wool-carding and cloth-dressing. In 1850 a large lot of cloth that had been dressed and was in the mill awaiting delivery, was stolen, the cloth being valued at about $400. Old "Site" Doty was afterward indicted by the grand jury for the robbery, but the indictment and proofs were destroyed when the court house was burned, in 1852. In 1832 Mr. Merrick purchased of Addison J. Comstock a piece of land consisting of about one acre, on West Maumee street, for which he gave a wooden clock and a bedstead. In 1834 he built a house on this land, and in 1846 erected a large brick residence, which is still standing. A portion of the land is now occupied by the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton railroad. Mr. Merrick died Jan. 2, 1882, at the ripe age of eighty-two years. In the fall of 1830 Isaac French came to Adrian and purchased lots 13, 15 and 34, on the original plat of the village. He built his hotel on lots 13 and 15, and conducted it successfully until 1836, when he sold it to Pomeroy Stone. Mr. Stone was a native of Massachusetts and settled in Adrian in the fall of 1835. In 1831 Turner Stetson built the house now known as the St. Charles Hotel_ In those days it was the custotil to give each building, after the frame was up, a name, and Elias Dennis named this building "The Key to Adrian." New settlers were occasionally arriving, some with families and others without. When a new house was raised anywhere in the neighborhood, all turned out to assist. It is related that at onetime, when nearly every man was absent from the place, a large number of Indians made their appearance in the streets, and this caused much alarm among the ladies and children, for the reason that the Indians got gloriously drunk and made the place hideous by their yells. No serious damage was done, however. In 1831 Joseph H. Cleveland opened a store in a building which stood between the St. Charles Hotel and the river.

The year 1832 was an exciting one for Adrian. In volume i, of Whitney & Bonner's publications, we find the following: "This was the year of the Black Hawk war, which gave us great alarm, especially when an Indian made his appearance in the village. Rumors were rife that large numbers of Indians were collecting in the woods, and that a general war was at hand. Nothing was talked of except battles and defeat, and scalping of white men, women and children. Ask an Indian any questions about it and he knew nothing. This only had the effect to alarm the people still more, who supposed they did know, but came in occasionally as spies. They were questioned so much when they did make their appearance that they actually became alarmed themselves. The Indians were as innocent as babes, but the trouble was, the white settlers had lost confidence. It was but a short time before the able-bodied men were called upon to shoulder their rifles to defend their families from the bloody tomahawk of the Indian. Then came the time that tried men's knees. Then it was that such men as Capt. Charles M. McKenzie were appreciated in Adrian. While cowards wept like babies, he was one of the first to shoulder his rifle. But it is not our purpose to give a history of the Black Hawk war. We would leave that to Captain McKenzie, were he alive, or some of his brave comrades, who filled the big tree with bullets at the battle of Coldwater. This war and the cholera of that year were about as much as Adrian could stand. The nearest case of cholera was in Detroit, and the nearest hostile Indian to Adrian was beyond the Mississippi river." Capt. Charles M. McKenzie settled in Adrian in the spring of 1832. He commenced making brick on the farm of Capt. James Whitney, boarded with Isaac French, and lodged with his men in Mr. Whitney's barn. Mr. McKenzie died Nov. 21, 1871, aged seventy-one years.

Among the principal events of importance in the history of Adrian, in 1834, was the establishment of the Lenawee Republican and Adrian Gazette, which occurred on Oct. 22. It is doubtful if the village had at that time grown to sufficient size to warrant such an undertaking, but Addison J. Comstock and others welcomed it as an aid in the contest for supremacy and the honors of being the County seat, then being ,waged by Adrian and Tecumseh. The owner of the enterprise was R. W. Ingalls, a practical printer. It was a very grave task to undertake the publication of a paper at such a time. Paper and ink had to be brought a long distance, and there were few mails. The owner persevered, however, amid all discouragements, and the paper still lives under the name of the Daily Times, much heartier and stronger than when it was born. Many a similar venture has gone to the bottom in the seventy-Five years that have since elapsed. It was like_ all the papers of its time-filled with news from abroad. The proceedings of the legislature were given with great fullness, and of foreign news there was an abundance, but of home news very little, and of editorials, practically none. Editors, then, did not write. Nearly everything original in any newspaper of that period was communicated, and the writers all had classical signatures-" Cato," "Brutus," "Cassius," "Cicero," etc. The young lawyers and doctors of that day probably aired their college education in this way, and seemed to be happiest when they could stir up a controversy about something. The approach of an election was perceptible by communications on the danger the country was in, which could be averted only by the election of John Smith to the legislature. A rival newspaper was established some time afterward, and the two engaged in heated controversies. In 1835, Asahel Finch, Jr., and Abel Whitney, both of whom had been engaged in the drygoods business, opened the first drug store in Adrian. It was located on lot No. 30, north side of Maumee street.

Abel Whitney was a man of much activity and influence during a long career in Adrian and deserves more than a passing mention in this connection. He came to Adrian with his father-James Whitney-in June, 1828, He began his business life when only eighteen years old, in the summer of 1831, when, in company with a brother-in-law, Asher Stevens, and Richard M. Lewis, he visited Ohio and bought a drove of about Zoo cattle. They went in a southwesterly course, striking Bean creek a few miles above the site of Morenci, followed that stream to the Maumee river, which they crossed at Defiance, and then up the Auglaize river through a wilderness to Wapakoneta, St. Mary's and Greenville. Returning, they swam their stock across the Maumee and other streams on the way. In readiness to "do the next thing," in the fall of 1831, Mr. Whitney took a place as clerk in the general country store of Messrs. Finch & Skeels, where he made himself useful until the dissolution of the firm, in 1832, when at the suggestion of one of the partners, Asahel Finch, he made preparation for opening a grocery store, cutting and hauling- to mill the logs for lumber to build his place of business, and he was ready to commence operations in the summer of 1833. In 1834, he sold his place and business to Anson Clark, and in 1835, in company with Asahel Finch, be erected the building in after years known as the Hance school building. In this building they opened the first drug store in Adrian. Some time later, Mr. Whitney disposed of his interest to his partner, and began to buy and sell land. In the spring of 1837, he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Alfred IV. Budlong, in the dry goods trade, and early in the season went to New York to buy goods, traveling by stage from Toledo through Cleveland to Beaver, and by steamboat to Pittsburg, thence by canal and short sections of railroad to Philadelphia, and from there by steamboat and stage. Returning, he went to Albany by a Hudson river steamboat, to Schenectady by railroad, to Buffalo by the Erie canal, thence by stage to Erie, Pa., by steamboat to Toledo, and by the Erie & Kalamazoo railroad to Adrian, having taken about six weeks iii making the trip. His interest in this business he sold to his partner the same year. The project of building the Michigan Southern railroad opened to his view a broader field of enterprise, and in company with Silas Crane, he made a contract with Gen. Levi S. Humphrey, commissioner of the Michigan Southern railroad, "a state enterprise," to furnish the superstructure for two miles of the road, which was the first work done on the road west of the city of Monroe. In the spring of 1838, with the same partner, he contracted with the commissioner to build the road from Leroy bridge to Adrian, including the clearing of the ground, building bridges and culverts, and laying the iron. They opened a grocery and provision store in connection with their railroad work, sent men as far as Springfield, Ill., to buy hogs-which were driven to Adrian and killed on what is at present known as Lawrence Park-to supply their laborers and the citizens generally with meat. After completing his contract on the railroad, Mr. Whitney entered into partnership with Henry Hart, in the dry goods trade, continuing until 1842, when he sold his interest to Mr. Hart. In 1843 he was appointed postmaster at Adrian, and held the office until 1849, and in this time he formed a partnership with Mr. Hart in the foundry business, which continued several years. In 1849, he was in company with Hi ram Dawes. in the forwarding and commission business on the Michigan Southern railroad and until the company began providing its own warehouses when he engaged in buying and selling grain, which he continued until the spring of 1857. In 1852, he was a member of the Democratic National Convention, at Baltimore, which nominated Franklin Pierce for the Presidency, but becoming dissatisfied with the position of his party on the question of slavery, he ceased to be active in its behalf. He was in favor of Douglas, and without his previous knowledge was nominated by the party for the office of sheriff of Lenawee County, but the Republicans having a large majority in the County, no one on his ticket was elected. He voted for Abraham Lincoln, in 1864, and after that time acted with the Republican Party. During the Civil war, he was treasurer of the soldiers' bounty fund for the city of Adrian, spending his time without compensation, and contributing means to prevent the necessity of a draft. His interest in education was always active, and from 1859 to 1868, he was a member of the board of trustees of the public schools of Adrian, being three times elected its president, and he aided largely, with his time and. experience, in erecting three of the best school buildings in the state and in systematizing the schools, serving without compensation and devoting a large share of his time to the work, for the satisfaction of aiding in the successful arrangement and permanent establishment of a school system which would benefit the children of this and future generations, and make them useful citizens. In 1840, the Presbyterian society selected Mr. Whitney to solicit and collect funds, and contract for materials and labor, for the erection of the church edifice which they still occupy, and he superintended the work as though it had been his own private enterprise. In company with Henry Hart, he originated the movement for providing a suitable resting place for the dead of the city, which resulted in the purchase by him of twenty-two acres of land, in the winter of 1847-48, of Addison J. Comstock. He raised the subscription to the stock for the First National Bank, in 1872, was a stock-holder, and served as a director and vice-president. In 1835, Elihu L. Clark located in Adrian. He opened a small dry goods store near the hotel of Isaac French, in a building erected by Mr. French for a blacksmith shop. Mr. Clark accumulated a large fortune, and was at one time supposed to be the wealthiest man in Southern Michigan. In 1836, the Erie & Kalamazoo railroad, which had been in progress for two years, was completed to Adrian, amid great rejoicing of the people. This opened a market long needed, the value of which can hardly be estimated. This road was one of the first built in the United States, and the first in Michigan. The day of its completion was a gala day for the citizens of Adrian. The first brass band in Adrian was organized in 1838, by an Englishman named William Tutten, from Utica, N. Y., and it was called the "Adrian Brass Band." It went to Fort Meigs, in 1840, with the Lenawee County delegation, to attend the great Harrison mass meeting. At this time it was led by William C. Hunt. William Barnes built the first reservoir in the village in the summer of 1839, at a cost of $111.33. The formative period of Adrian's history comprises the period extending from 1828 to 1853. The little village that was laid out and platted by Addison J. Comstock, in 1828, had a steady growth and increased quite rapidly in population and wealth during the ensuing twenty-five years, and the need of a more complete governmental organization came to be felt. The little settlement of 1826 had increased to sufficient proportions that naturally the question of a city organization came to be agitated, and by an act of the state legislature, approved Jan. 31, 1853, the place was incorporated as a city. The life- of Adrian as a village covered in all a period of twenty-five years, beginning in 1828 and ending in 1853. And in passing the act for the incorporation of the city the legislature provided that James Sword, who had been elected president of the village in 1852, should become the first mayor under the charter.

As a comparison between the original and the present limits of the city, we insert here the boundaries as they were in 1853. The incorporating act or charter provided as follows: "That so much of the Townships of Adrian and Madison, in the County of Lenawee, as is embraced in the following description, to-wit: All that part of section 34, in the Township of Adrian, lying east of the highway running north from the Township line through said section (excepting therefrom the north half of the-north half of said section) and the south half and south half of the north half of section 35, and so much of the residue of said section as will include the bridge near the Red Mill, so called, and also the west half of section 36 (excepting therefrom the north half of the northwest quarter of said section) in the Township of Adrian, and also the west half of section I, all of section 2, and so much of section 3, in the Township of Madison, as hes east of the north and south road running through said section 3, is hereby set off from the Townships of Adrian and Madison and constituted the city of Adrian, by which name it shall be hereafter known," the inhabitants thereof to constitute a body corporate and politic. The city was divided into three wards, the first of which comprised all the territory taken from Madison Township, the second, all that part of the city lying north of the Township line between ranges 6 and 7 and east of Main street, the third, all that part of the city lying north of said Township line and west of Main street. The charter provided for annual elections, to be held on the first Monday of April in each year, at which the offices to be elected were a mayor, recorder (who shall be ex-officio school inspector), treasurer, marshal (who shall be ex-officio collector of taxes), street commissioner, two school inspectors, two directors of the poor, and four justices of the peace. The terms of office were one year for the mayor, recorder, treasurer, marshal and street commissioner, and two years for the school inspectors and directors of the poor, one to be elected in alternate years. The, municipal government was to consist of a common council, composed of the mayor, recorder, and six aldermen (two from each ward), and the mayor or recorder and four aldermen constituted a quorum. There was also to be elected at the same time, in and for the several wards, one supervisor (who shall also be assessor), one treasurer, one constable, .and two aldermen, the said aldermen to hold for two years after the first year, at the first election one being elected for one year and one for two years. The city of Adrian, for all- purposes in regard to common schools and school monies, was deemed a Township, and it was provided that the mayor of the city "shall represent the several wards in the board of supervisors of the County of Lenawee, and shall be entitled to all the rights, privileges and powers of a member of said board, and no other." The president, recorder, and trustees of the village were to determine the result of the first election under the new charter, and subsequent elections were to be determined by the mayor and common council. The mayor was made the chief executive officer, and the head of the police department of the city.

The above is a summary of the original charter of the city of Adrian, stated as briefly as possible. It was amended in 1855, and the city was divided into four wards, as follows: The First ward commenced at the southeast corner of the city, running thence westerly on the south line of the city to the center line of State street, thence northerly on the center, line of State street and on the center line of the continuation of State street to the center line of Church street, thence westerly on the center line of Church street to the center line of Main street, thence northerly on the center line of Main street to the center line of, Maumee street, thence easterly on the center line of Maumee street to the east line of the city, thence southerly on the east line of the city to the place of beginning. The Second ward commenced at the northeast corner of the city, running thence southerly on the east line of the city to the center line of Maumee street, thence westerly on the center line of Maumee street to the center line of Main street, thence northerly on the center line of Main street to the north line of the city, and thence easterly on the north line of the city to the place of beginning. The Third ward commenced at the northwest corner of the city, thence running east on the north line of the city to the center line 'of Main street, thence southerly on the center line of Main street to the center line of Maumee street, thence westerly on the center line of Maumee street to the west line of the city, and thence north on the west, line of the city to the place of beginning. The Fourth ward commenced at the southwest corner of the city, thence northerly on the west line of the city to the center line of the westerly continuation of Maumee street, thence easterly on the center line of Maumee street to the center line of Main street, thence southerly on the center line of Main street to the center line of Church street, thence easterly on the center line of Church street to the center line of the continuation of State street, thence southerly oil the center line of the continuation of State street and on the center line of State street to the south line of the city, thence westerly on the south line of the city to the place of beginning. The city government provided by this amendment to the charter was a common council, composed of the mayor and eight aldermen, of whom any five constituted a quorum, and the mayor was given a vote only in case of an equal division of the aldermen. Each ward was given a treasurer, a constable, and two aldermen, and the city was given two supervisors, one elected in wards I and 4 and another in wards 2 and 3. -These supervisors represented the city in the County board, whereas the mayor had formerly officiated in that capacity. The ward treasurers were deemed Township treasurers, and in the collection and return of taxes were given all the powers, performed all the duties, and were made subject to all the liabilities of Township treasurers. Other changes in the charter were made from time to time, and in 1887 a substantially new charter was passed by the legislature. This new charter enlarged the boundaries of the city somewhat, without increasing the number of wards by act of May 23, 1893, the city council was empowered, whenever, it deemed it expedient, to re-district the city into wards, divide any ward or change the boundaries thereof, establish new wards, and increase the number of wards of the city. Soon after the passage of this act, the city, was re-apportioned into five wards, and following the census of 1900, another division was made, and there are now six wards in the city. Under the present chatter, the city government has a mayor, city clerk, city attorney, city treasurer, marshal, street commissioner, surveyor, city physician, overseer of the poor, fire warden, and dog warden. There are two aldermen from each ward, four justices of the peace, and six constables-one for each of the wards. Other officers are the members of the board of health, and a school board which is composed of seven members, and each ward has a representative in the County board of supervisors.

The following is a list of all who have held the office of mayor of the city since its incorporation, in 1853, the year given being the time of the election of each, and the term of service extending to the year given as the time of the election of his successor: 1853, James Sword (served as mayor by virtue of the legislative enactment which incorporated the city, from January until the regular election in April) ; 1853, Addison J. Comstock; 1854, Parley J. Spalding; 1855, Francis J. Buck; 1856, Fernando C. Beaman;1857, Richard II. 1-WWhitney; 1858, William L. Greenly; x859, Henry Hart; 186o, William WV. Cook; 1861, Daniel A. Loomis, 1862, Charles M: Croswell; 1863, John D. Campbell; 1864, Benjamin Folsom ; 1865, William S. Wilcox; 1866, William S. Sammons ; 1867, John Townsend; 1868, William S. Sammons; 1869, Norman Geddes ; 187o, Nathaniel B. Eldredge; 1871, Richard B. Robbins ; 1872, Henry A. Angell, 18i3, William H. Waldby; 1874, Nelson H. Kimball; 1876, William Air. Luck; 1877, Charles II. Comstock ; 1878, George H. Bruce; 1879, Frank 0. Bray; 188o, James A. Stacy; 188x, Thomas J. Navin; 1882, William Corbin; 1884, Richard A. Bury; 1885, Nelson H. Kimball; 1886, Daniel Todd, 1887, Adolph J. Kaiser; 1889, Abram Wing; 1890, Seth Bean; 189x, Leonard V. Hoch; 1892, Alanson B. Treat; 1893, William Foster Bradley; 1894, Charles S. Cain; 1895, Clifford Kirkpatrick; 1896, William 0. Hunt; 1897, J. Will Kirk; 1899, Willard Stearns; 1901, James II. Reynolds; 1902, George B. M. Seager ; 1903, Jacob N. Sampson; 19o4, David L. Treat; 19o5, Frank S. Barnum ; 1907, William F. King; 1909, David L. Treat, present incumbent. Many of these gentlemen, are given appropriate mention on other pages of this work.

Richard H. Whitney was born in Harvard, Mass., in 1808, and came to Michigan and settled in Adrian in 1831. Before coming to Michigan he was engaged in general mercantile pursuits, but after locating in Adrian he became largely interested in the development of farming lands, built several houses in Adrian, and for twenty-five years served as justice of the peace. He was elected mayor of Adrian in 1857, was a -member of the school board, and was actively identified with the founding of -the public school system in the city. He was a thrifty, provident business man, and when he died, July 11, 1867, the left a comfortable estate. Henry Hart was born in Albany, N. Y., Jan. 28, 1818, and he received his education in the old Albany Academy. Mathematics, the practical sciences, and the rudiments of engineering were the topics to which the young man most naturally turned, and in these his opportunities were unsurpassed. Graduating early, he secured employment for a time on the preliminary survey of the Boston & Albany railroad, his father's friend, Erastus Corning, then at the outset of his great railroad career, being one of its promoters. In August, 1837, Henry Hart came West, by way of the Erie Canal-and Lake Erie, arriving at Monroe, Mich., in company with Henry Waldron, who had graduated at the same school, the young men being then respectively nineteen and eighteen years of age. Both readily found employment at their profession as civil engineers, in the survey and construction of the Michigan Southern railroad, which was then being built by the state. Their first employment was near Jonesville, and they continued in this work until the final location of the route. Mr. Hart was then put in charge by the commissioner of the final location and construction of the work between Monroe and Adrian. The road was completed to Adrian in 1840, and in the fall of that year Mr. Hart located in this city. He at once formed a co-partnership with Abel Whitney and opened a dry goods store in Adrian, which firm continued for about two years, when Mr. Hart purchased Mr. Whitney's interest and carried on the business continuously until 1866. He was appointed, under President Franklin Pierce, special agent of the Post office Department for the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Northern Illinois, which position he held for about six years. While absent in New York in the spring of 1859, he was elected mayor of Adrian, and held the office one year, declining a re-nomination. In 1866, he was elected secretary of the Michigan State Insurance Company, of Adrian, which, tinder his management, became known as one of the most successful enterprises of its kind ever organized under Michigan laws. He was one of its founders, in 1859, and remained its secretary tip to the time of his death. In 1865, at a called meeting of the citizens of the County for the purpose of organizing a Soldiers' Monument Association, he was elected its president, and continued in that position until the erection of the fine memorial which now stands on Monument Square. in Adrian, the main shaft of which was originally one of the pillars of the old United States Bank at Philadelphia, and which shaft, through Mr. Hart's solicitation, the Hon. Henry 1Valdron, then in Congress, was influential in 'obtaining. The monument was dedicated, July 4, I87o, and Mr. Hart acted as president of the day. He also acted in a like capacity at the Centennial celebration in Adrian, July 4, 1876. On Thursday, Oct. 2, 18i9, Mr. Hart received injuries at the fall of the grand stand on the County fair grounds in Adrian, a memorable and most distressing accident, which took place at about 3 p. in., and resulted in sixteen deaths and many permanent injuries. Mr. Hart was removed to his home, but lingered only long enough to be surrounded by his family, and he expired in the arms of his wife at about 5 o'clock on the following morning.

Daniel A. Loomis was born, Sept. 11, 1811, at Lanes 1, Berkshire County, Massachusetts. He lived with his father and worked at the carpenter's trade until about 183o, when he net with an accident, which disabled hint, and he went into a store with a brother for about, a year. He afterward spent one year in the South. With his family, he landed in Monroe, Mich., in 1836, and there he lived until the spring of 1837, when he came to Adrian and purchased a farm in Adrian Township, on section 31, afterward owned by W. F. Peebles. There he experienced all of the trials and privations of pioneer life for four years, at the end of which time he rented his farm to job Card for two years and returned to New York, where he worked the old home farm, returning to Adrian in the fall of 1842. He then engaged in building and general carpenter work, which he followed during the most of his life. On Feb. 7, 1843, he joined the Adrian fire department and became a member of the hook and ladder company. In 1845, he was elected trustee of the village of Adrian, and he was elected mayor of the city in April, 1861. He was a member of the board of commissioners of the Michigan state prison in 1864-5. He was foreman of the Hook and Ladder Company for two years, and chief engineer of the Adrian fire department two years. He died Feb. 22, 1868.

William II. Waldby was born at Cooperstown, Otsego County, New York, May 16, 1826. In 182-9, he removed with his parents to' the city of Utica, where he resided nine years, and where he received his education, the last three years attending the Utica Academy, under the instruction of William WV. Williams. At the age of twelve years, in 1838, 11e removed with 'his father's family to the village of Rome, at which time his father purchased a printing office and founded the Rome Sentinel newspaper. Young Waldby entered the office at that time, learned the art of printing, and kept his father's books. At the age of seventeen, 11e became a clerk in the store of Adam Van Patten, in Rome, and in 1845, his father having sold the Sentinel office and removed to Utica, he also returned there and became a clerk in the dry goods store of Edward Vail. In July, 1846, in company with his brother, E. I. Waldby, he came to Adrian and accepted a position as a clerk in the old Bidwell store. After clerking for the Bidwells for three years, in 1849, a clothing store was started in the then new brick store, second east of where the Maumee Hotel now stands, the firm being Bidwell & Waldby, and the store was managed successfully by Mr. Waldby, who was the junior partner, for one year. In 1850, Ira Bidwell decided to open a banking office in Adrian, and he offered Mr. Waldby an interest in and the management of the same, which position was accepted. In 1851, Mr. Bidwell retired from the business, selling his interest to Mr. Waldby, by whom the bank was successfully continued. In 1855, Amir Waldby purchased the lot on the southeast corner of Maumee and Main streets, and in 1857 erected and occupied the banking house which still stands, and there he continued the business until 1872, the latter portion of the time and for some years, with his brother, E. I. Waldby, as partner. In 1872, he sold the building, business, and good will to the First National Bank of Adrian. In the spring of 1873, at the request of business friends and other citizens, he accepted a nomination for mayor of the city of Adrian and was elected to that office by a majority of 614, receiving a majority in each of the four wards of the city. He served one year, until the spring of 1874.

William W. Luck was a native of New York State, and was born in the city of Auburn, July 17, 1819. He spent his boyhood days in various towns of his native state and attended school in the city of Buffalo. After he attained to manhood, he was variously engaged for several years, and then, having a curiosity to investigate the western country of which he had heard.so much, he made a trip across the plains to the gold and silver mining country where he remained for two years. Upon his return he entered the employ of the United States Express Company, at Monroe, Mich., in May, 1854. He served at Cleveland, Toledo, and other places, coming to Adrian in 1864, when he took possession of the office of that company as its agent. In politics, he was a member of the Republican Party, and as such was elected mayor in 1876. He was a consistent member of the Episcopal Church.

Richard A. Bury was born in Albany, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1830. The family removed to Detroit in 1832, and the son was educated in the famous school of the Rev. Moses H. Hunter, at Grosse Isle, Mich., his education being finished in the schools of Cleveland, Ohio. From the age of twenty he was in business for himself and made a mark in the lumber traffic. In 1862, he moved to Adrian, opening a lumber yard and planing mill on the lot bounded by Frank, Church, Locust. and Center streets. He removed later to the corner of Michigan and Division streets, where he took in D. M. Baker as a partner. On Jan. 1, 1872, he was appointed lumber agent of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad, selling- his interest in the lumber business to Mr. Baker. He retained his position with the railroad until the time of his death. He served several terms as member of the school board, and one term as mayor. Alr. Bury died at the family home on Division street, June 6, 1902.

Willard Stearns came to Lenawee County, in 1851, from Cherry Valley, N. Y., where he was born, Oct. 3, 1838. He passed his boyhood days, until he was eighteen, upon a farm in Franklin Township, and then he taught his first school in the Sebring district, in Ogden. He had attended district school three months in the year, and in the spring of 1858 entered the State Normal School, graduating in 1862. He entered the army in July. 1863, enlisting in Company H, Eleventh Michigan cavalry, and was mustered in as first lieutenant of the company, serving till the winter of 1864, when he, resigned, and shortly after his return he was secured to teach the district school in the Payne district, two miles north of Rome Center. He graduated from the law department of the university, in 1867, and at once formed a partnership with Gov. W. L. Greenly, which continued until the latter's death. In 1871, Mr. Stearns was elected County superintendent of schools for Lenawee County, over Mr. Drake, of Medina, by ten majority in a vote of over 8,000, being the first Democrat elected in the County for twenty years. In 1872, he was the Democratic nominee for Superintendent of Public Instruction, and in 1876 was on the ticket as a candidate for Secretary of State. He was elected justice of the peace in 1875, and he also served ten or twelve years as an alderman in the Adrian city council. He was postmaster at Adrian five years, being appointed in the first Cleveland administration, and in 1888 was the Democratic nominee for Congress, making the most vigorous personal campaign ever waged in the district, but while he received more votes than had ever before been cast for a candidate for Congress by either party he was defeated by Captain Allen. In 1898, he made the race for Circuit judge, and the next spring was elected mayor of Adrian, being re-elected in 1goo, and he was defeated by Dr. J. H. Reynolds, in 1901, by only eighty-three votes. The nominal Republican majority in the city during this tine was about 300. Mr. Stearns took charge of the Adrian Press, in 1878, and for nearly thirty years conducted one of the most vigorous Democratic papers in the state. He died in December, 19o8. IJames Henry Reynolds was born in Amherst, Lorain County, Ohio, May 14, 1845. When he was six years of age, his parents moved to Petersburg, Monroe County, Mich., where he resided until 1868. He was a student there in the public schools, and was prepared for college at the Ypsilanti Seminary. He served in the army about two years, and was mustered out, May 7, 1865, before he was twenty years old. He was a member of Company G Sixth Michigan heavy artillery, and performed the duties of hospital steward. On his return from the army, Mr. Reynolds took up the study of medicine with Dr. D. 1V. Loree, of Ridgeway, this County. He attended medical lectures at the University of Michigan, and graduated at the Detroit Medical College, in 1871. He practiced medicine in Palmyra for fifteen years, removed to Adrian in 1883, and there he remained in practice until 1895. On account of failing health, he then gave up his lucrative practice and assisted in the organization of the Bond Steel Post Company, being made secretary and advertising agent, which positions he held for two and one-half years. He then disposed of his interests, and in October, 1897, accepted a position with the Page. Woven Wire Fence Company, as advertising manager. He always voted the Republican ticket, and he held the office of superintendent of schools in Palmyra Township in the days when that officer had to examine teachers and visit the schools. He was twice elected Township clerk and served as health officer many years. He was United States examining surgeon for pensions on the board at Adrian for six years, and for five years he was surgeon for the Lake Shore Railroad Company at this point. In the spring of 19o1, he was elected mayor of the city of Adrian, and it was under his administration that the work was laid out and estimates agreed upon for the paving of North and South Main streets, East Church, Michigan, and West Maumee streets, the city being bonded for $50,000 to pay for these improvements. Dr. Reynolds erected one of the largest and finest business blocks in Adrian, situated on North Main Street and known as the Reynolds Block. With an honorable record of more than eighty years, since the village was first platted, Adrian well sustains her long established reputation for solidity and the merited compliment of being a good business center and a fine residence place. The men who established the little hamlet in the wilderness, in 18z8, founded that reputation, and their descendants and successors have well maintained it. The religious and educational affairs received early attention and liberal support. Merchants were aggressive and public-spirited, their stocks oftimes rivaling in value those exhibited by present day dealers. The early banking institutions were flourishing and impregnable, and general prosperity crowned the efforts of the people. But if the reader will stop and reflect he will observe that all of the business of the earlier days, as well as at present, was closely related to agricultural supremacy. Lenawee County was then, as now, the center of one of the richest agricultural districts in the United States, a distinction which the locality has retained with creditable success. All business was directed toward handling the products of the farms and in supplying the farmers' needs. The early settlers and business men of Adrian were generally people with agricultural tendencies and traditions. They were sons of farmers, and parental traditions and customs are strong within the human breast. These men purchased land, cultivated and improved it, erected houses and lived out their allotted days in the peace and harmony of the quiet community their industry had established.

Adrian has a population of 10,680, according to the state census of 19o4. It contains a number of handsome and expensive residences and public buildings, while the average homes evince the air of thrift and prosperity in their surroundings, in keeping with the industry and frugality of the occupants. The city contains fewer poor and squalid residences, indicative of poverty and misery, than most cities of its size. The sanitary conditions are excellent and the drainage system as good as can be had. The board of health and sanitary offices are vigilant in the discharge of their official duties, and the streets and alleys are kept in the most perfect sanitary conditions. A well organized and trained fire department is equipped with' the latest and best apparatus for the purpose designed, and the efficiency of the department has been demonstrated on many occasions. A police force, the guardians of the public peace and property, although few in number, are noted for their efficiency in the line of official duties, and the city marshal, John B. Maurer, has received high commendation for successful detective work. He and his deputies are courteous and obliging men, to whose vigilance and alertness is due the small percentage of burglaries and unlawful acts, a fact of which the city boasts. The municipal government of Adrian for the present year (agog) is as follows: Mayor, David Leroy Treat; president pro-tem., Henry F. Bohn; city clerk, John Mawdsley; city treasurer, John W. Wagner; city marshal, John B. Maurer; street commissioner, Charles H. Randall; city attorney, James II. Baker; city physician, A. IV. Chase; city surveyor, C. S. Keating; overseer of the poor, Niles Peterson; chief engineer of the fire department, Henry C. Bowen ; assistant chief of the fire department, John W. Wagner; fire warden, Jonathan B. Davis; health officer, Dr. G. B. M. Seager. The nucleus of the present city library originated in 1868, when the cultured ladies of Adrian took hold of the matter in earnest and organized the Ladies' Library Association. The Central school building, which was destroyed by fire with all its contents, in August, 1866, contained a fairly good, though not large, library, which consisted of books of travel, history, and standard works of fiction. 'The Y. M. C. A. of that time had a library in connection with its work, to be used at the rooms, and the firemen Also had a collection of 441 volumes, which were later given to the Ladies' .Library Association. But the need of a circulating library, which should contain books of a varied character, being more and more felt in the community, a call was made for the ladies of the city, who were interested in such a movement, to-meet at the' new Central building, Aug. a5, 1868. The result was the incorporation of the Ladies' Library Association with a capital stock of $5,000. For nineteen years this association continued, with Mrs. A. F. Bixby as president. Meanwhile the school library, the nucleus of which had been formed in August, 1869, by the purchase of books to the amount of $1.200. had reached 5,000 volumes and was housed in the third story of the Central school building, but the capacity of the room was tested almost to its fullest extent. In 1887, a movement looking toward the union of the libraries was started. The ladies offered to the school board their books-over 3,000 volumes-with a building which had cost them $1,150, the only stipulation being that the combined libraries should be placed in rooms on the ground floor. The proposed consolidation, with a request for the use of the lower floor of the city hall. was brought to the attention of the common council. Opposition arose, excitement ran high, but a resolution was finally passed, leasing the first story of the city hall building to the school board for library purposes for a period of twenty years, at an annual rental of fifty dollars. To arrange the preliminary details, to properly fit up the room, and to re-number and catalogue the 8,000 volumes contained in both collections, took time, and it was two years before the library was opened in its new home. The room was finished and the library opened to the public, Jan. 5, 1890, under the charge of Mrs. Margaret F. Jewell, the present efficient librarian. The 8,000 volumes in due time were added to until the number approximated 20.000. Public-spirited citizens made donations, and Amos Baker, of Clayton, left a bequest of $8,000, invested in 4 per cent City bonds, yielding an annual income of $320, which is used in the purchase of books "other than fiction." The need of a new home for the library became pressing, and the idea was conceived of a Carnegie library building for Adrian. Negotiations were opened with Andrew Carnegie, looking to a donation by him for library purposes, and the effort was successful, the steel magnate agreeing to give $20,000 upon the usual conditions required by him in such cases. Upon further correspondence, $5,000 was added to the original amount, and later $2,500, making a total of $27,500 from Mr. Carnegie. The city council, in the annual appropriation bill of 1907, added $5,000 more to the amount to be used for the erection of the library building, thus making the total $32,500. After mature deliberation, the Knight mill property at the corner of Church and Dennis streets was selected as the most desirable and convenient site for the building. The corner-stone was placed in position, Nov. 5, 1907, and the building was completed and made ready for occupancy by Feb. 5, 1909. The library is open on the secular days of the week, from 1o a. m. until 8 p. m., and it is a popular resort, much appreciated by the studious citizens of all ages, who often fill the convenient sittings provided in the reading room. As before stated, Mrs. Margaret F. Jewell has been the librarian since the consolidation of the ladies' and school libraries, in 1889, and from then until 1893 Miss Florence E. Bates was her assistant, being succeeded in that year by Miss Agnes H. Jewell, who has since faithfully performed the duties of that position. Adrian may well be proud of her public library, where more than 20,000 choice volumes await the call of its patrons. The public burial place of Adrian is Oakwood Cemetery, located in the northeastern part of the city, just within the corporation limits. Previous to the establishment of Oakwood Cemetery, and beginning with the- need for such a place in the village of Adrian, there was a public burying ground on the present site of South Park. But the development of the village in. every direction deprived this place of the quiet and seclusion which one always associates with a burial place for the dead, hence the selection of the present site, which has been enlarged and beautified as the years passed until it is now an ideal spot. It contains the mortal remains of several of Lenawee County's most distinguished citizens, whose final resting places are rendered conspicuous by the erection of worthy monuments. The private citizen and the soldier are equally honored by the reverence and sacrifice of surviving friends, to the end that this sacred spot is rendered beautiful in keeping with the sadly reverential purpose which made its existence a necessity. Mrs. Josephine Wilcox, wife of the late Hon. William S. Wilcox, on her death in 1897, left the stem of $5,000, to construct an entrance to the cemetery, in memory of her husband. It is very beautifully designed and is a fitting memorial to one of Adrian's honored citizens.

Two other cemeteries-St. Mary's and St. Joseph's-known respectively as the Irish Catholic and the German Catholic cemeteries, are located near the parish buildings, the former on South Division street and the latter just beyond Oakwood cemetery; and the German Lutheran cemetery is situated on the east side of Oakwood avenue at the city limits. Caretakers keep them looking like beautiful parks, and the lawns and hedges are carefully clipped. No sign of neglect or carelessness is allowed, and thus the modern cemetery is no longer a tangle of overgrown weeds and grass as it was in years gone by. The social spirit of the city of Adrian is revealed in a long list of secret and benevolent societies, and from the records of each organization it would seem that each one is prosperous. The first Masonic lodge organized in the village was "Adrian Lodge No. 19," On July 28, 1847, by E. Smith Lee, Grand Master of Michigan at that time. The original officers were: John Barber, worshipful master; William Moore, senior warden; Warner Comstock, junior warden; Jonathan Berry, treasurer; David Horton, secretary; David Bixby, senior deacon; William Talford, junior deacon; Samuel Anderson, Tyler. This lodge is still in existence, in a very prosperous condition, and it meets in Masonic Temple on each Wednesday evening at 7 o'clock, standard time. Adrian Chapter No. io, Royal Arch Masons, operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Michigan, meets in Masonic Temple Thursday evenings on or before full moon, at 7:3o o'clock from April to October, and at 7 o'clock during the remainder of the year. Of the Royal and Select Masters, there is also a council in the city: Adrian Council No. IS. It meets in the Masonic Temple on each Thursday evening at 7:30. Adrian Commandery No. 4, Knights Templar, operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Commandery of Michigan, meets in Masonic Temple on each Friday evening, at 7:30 o'clock from April until October, and at 7 o'clock the remainder of the year. There is also a chapter of the Eastern Star: Adrian Chapter No. 112. One of the acts of Masonry in the city was the erection of Masonic Temple, which is one of the most beautiful lodge buildings in this part of the state. The corner stone was laid, June 24, 1865, and the building was occupied the following year.

Adrian Lodge No. 8, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was duly instituted March 6, 1835, by B. F. Hall, assisted by Past Grand J. H. Mullett, of Michigan Lodge No. I. Daniel D. Sinclair was installed as noble grand; Sebra Howard, vice-grand; Charles Smith, secretary, and R. W. Ingalls, treasurer. Other organizations of the Odd Fellows fraternity in the city are Canton Adrian No. 8, and Lenawee Encampment No. 4. Inasmuch as this fraternity was the first to take root in the newly formed village of Adrian its growth has been favored with that advantage. Enterprise Lodge, No. 4, Daughters of Rebekah, is an auxiliary organization, in which women are the directing geniuses. Maple City Lodge No. 39, Knights of Pythias, has grown rapidly in popular favor and in membership since the. date of its organization, and the Uniform Rank division of the order is represented by Adrian Division No. 14, while Adrian Temple No. 26, is the lodge of Pythian Sisters.

Adrian" is well supplied with lodges, and in this respect compares favorably with any other city of its size in the state. In the more than thirty that find a home here it is practically impossible in the space allowed to give more than an individual mention of each one. In those already mentioned an effort has been made to select those which to the greatest extent have withstood the vicissitudes of years. But the younger organizations are equally entitled to mention. The local lodge of Elks Adrian Lodge No. 409-has had a phenomenal growth since its formation, April 6, 1808, and its membership is constantly increasing. The Modern Woodmen of America, one of the largest orders in existence, has an active lodge organization in the city, and there are four lodges of the Independent Order of Foresters. Others that should be mentioned are the Knights of the Maccabees, National Union, Ancient Order United Workmen, Degree of Honor, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Knights and 'Ladies of Security, Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Society, the National Protective Legion, and the Grand Army of the Republic. Although mentioned last, by no means least in the consideration of social and benevolent societies in Adrian is Woodbury Post, Grand Army of the Republic. As is well known, every honorably discharged Union soldier of the Civil war is eligible to membership in this fraternal organization; and very few of the survivors of that great struggle deny themselves the benefits and social privileges, unless prevented by religious scruples or enfeebled health. But the lapse of forty-four years since the close of the war, and more than forty-eight years since the beginning, has devastated the ranks of that once proud and unconquerable army, and left the remnant in the "sere and yellow leaf" of declining years. But with the thinning ranks, as one falls here and another there, the "boys" of 1861 proudly and reverently "close tip to the right," maintaining and ever cherishing a kindly regard for their late comrades in arms, and their dependent widows and orphans. This is the dominant feature of the Grand Army of the Republic, and right royally do the survivors and their devoted wives, sons, and daughters fulfill the mission. This is the only fraternal organization with a "time limit" as to its existence. In the very nature of things, it must soon become only a memory. Woodbury Post musters within its ranks a large majority of the survivors of the war now residing in Adrian and vicinity, and its "camp fires" and social gatherings are a source of pleasure to old and young. Auxiliary to its beneficial and social features, the ladies of the Woman's Relief Corps perform an important part, as necessity demands. One of the best and most important of all the public institutions of Michigan is the Industrial Home for Girls, located at Adrian. It was mainly founded by the efforts of that grand old Quakeress, "Aunt" Laura Haviland, whose home was for so many years in this County, and who for nearly thirty years was so potent a factor in the great anti-slavery controversy that ended in the war of 1861-5. The State Industrial Home was created by act of the legislature of 1879, under the administration of Gov. Charles M. Croswell. The first Board of Control, under the act, to choose location and provide buildings, appoint officers, etc., was as follows Charles T. Gorham, of Marshall; William H. Waldby, of Adrian; Mrs. S. L. Fuller, of Grand Rapids.; Mrs. , C. B. Stebbins, of Lansing; Miss Emma Hall, of Ypsilanti; with Governor Croswell as exofficio member. The beautiful site was donated by the citizens of Adrian, and consisted of forty acres of land, with the buildings thereon, together with $3,000; but since that time adjacent ground has been purchased until there are now 113 acres of the most productive soil, with two farmhouses and adequate barns. The first building constructed was Clark cottage which, although not entirely finished, was occupied Aug. 3, 1 Miss Viola Wood, now Mrs. John 1. Knapp, of Adrian, was the first cottage manager appointed, with Miss Seaver, of Adrian, as teacher, and Miss Myrick. as housekeeper. The Home was founded on the cottage, or family, system. There are now twelve buildings, the cottages being named and known as follows: The Administration Building, Clark Cottage, Croswell Cottage. Gillespie Cottage, Haviland Cottage, Central Cottage, Palmer Cottage, Alger Cottage, and Bliss Cottage. There is a school building with a corps of teachers, and a graded school; a fine chapel, with a Sunday school each Sabbath morning and services in the afternoon, supplied by pastors of the city. - Catholic services are held twice each month, a priest coming for mass and confession, and the Sisters each month for catechism. A fine hospital has been erected, with all modern appointments, and supplied with an appointed lady physician.. There is also a complete and thorough cooking school, where a 'class is daily under instruction of a competent teacher. Each girl takes a course of four months, and when she graduates is presented with an excellent and practical cook book. Each girl is detailed for a certain period to look after all the domestic duties in the cottages, all becoming proficient in this important branch of household lore. Washing, ironing, mending, cleaning and decoration are also looked after. A sewing school is in operation, and every girl is taught to sew, put garments together and make calico dresses.' During this preliminary instruction, when any girl shows an aptitude for sewing, cutting, and fitting, she is advanced to the dress-making department where custom work is done. There is a horticultural department, and all learn the cultivation and propagation of plants, shrubs, and flowers. Music is taught in many branches, and all the ordinary accomplishments so-acceptable and necessary in a happy home, are sought to be developed as much as possible. There is a fine orchestra selected from among the girls with musical talent in the Home. When the Board and Superintendent are satisfied that girls are qualified, morally and otherwise, and it is to their welfare to leave the Home, places are found for them in the families of the farmers of the state. Great care is exercised in regard to these allotments, and girls can be called in at any time. Each girl receives a salary of from $1.50 to $2.50 per week, and a stipulated portion is returned quarterly to the Home and given the proper credit, the amount being returned to them upon receiving their final discharge. Since the foundation there have been but three superintendents. Miss Emma Hall was the first, taking charge June 27, 1881. After three years of hard service she was succeeded by Miss Margaret Scott, who remained in charge until 1891, in August of which year the present superintendent, Mrs. Lucy M. Sickels, was installed. The Home is now in fine condition, and people who thoroughly understand its workings appreciate the wisdom of its founding and the resultant good to the people of the state.

A history of Lenawee County would be decidedly incomplete if it did not contain an appropriate mention of Mrs. Laura S. Haviland, and there is no place more fitting for such mention than in connection with the Industrial Home, which stands as a monument to her memory. Mrs. Haviland was born at Kitley, Leeds County, Ontario, Canada, Dec. 20, 1808, the daughter of Daniel and Sene (Blancher) Smith. In 1815 the father returned to his native state-New York-with his family, and settled in Cambria, Niagara County, and there the daughter, Laura S., lived until she was married to Charles Haviland, Jr., Nov, 3, 1825, at Lockport. She became the mother of seven children, five of whom survived her. In September, 1829, Charles and Laura S. Haviland, with their two infant sons, came to Lenawee County and settled on a wilderness farm, in what is now Raisin Township, within three miles of where her parents had settled four years previously. About the year 1837 she, with her husband, opened a manual labor school on their premises, which school afterward became known as the .Raisin Institute. This was the first school in Michigan to open its doors to students of good moral character, regardless of sex or color. The first students were nine children taken from the Lenawee County Poorhouse, and they were wholly maintained by the institute for more than a year. Out of this enterprise grew the two splendid State Industrial Schools, the one for girls, at Adrian, and the other for boys, at Coldwater, both being authorized by acts of the state legislature and maintained by the state. "Aunt Laura," as she was familiarly called, spent much time at Lansing during the sessions of the legislature when these acts were passed, and she labored with members in their behalf. She was one of the organizers of the first Abolition society in Lenawee County, back in the '3os; established the first "underground railroad" depot in the state, and was ever after an earnest and enthusiastic helper of the slaves in their efforts to gain their freedom. So active was she in this work that a reward of $3,000 was offered for her, dead or alive, by the slave interests of the South. But this fact did not intimidate her in the least, and she continued her zealous efforts until the advent of universal emancipation, in 1863. In 1864 she went to New Orleans as agent of the Freedman's Relief Association of Michigan, and, in distributing supplies and dispensing relief, learned there were 3,000 Union soldiers imprisoned on Ship .Island and the Dry Tortugas, in the Gulf of Mexico, sent there by an ex-Confederate captain., who had taken the oath of allegiance and then been appointed to the position of judge advocate at New Orleans by General Banks. Following desperate and fruitless efforts in behalf of these soldier-prisoners, Aunt Laura went to Ship Island, and, after a week's investigation was further shocked and horrified at learning the truth. 'She got at the records, copied from the books the charges that condemned these men, and returned to New Orleans. Her efforts at that place being futile, she came home to Adrian, and after a few days' rest presented the case to the Hon. Fernando C. Beaman, member of Congress from this district, and Benjamin F. Wade, of Ohio. Within a week she received word that the ex-Confederate captain had been removed from his judicial position, and that the soldiers would be released as soon as due investigation could be made. No woman was better or more favorably known among the loyal people of the United States than Aunt Laura. A town in Kiowa County, Kansas, and a Friends academy, established in 1886, were named "Haviland," in honor of her life and work. At the same place a Friends quarterly meeting was also established and named after her. The picture of her kindly face adorns the walls of the academy at Haviland, Kan., and also the Industrial schools at Adrian and Coldwater. She crossed the ocean, and passed five pleasant months in England, after she was eighty years old, and she was there 'entertained by the best people of the realm. She died at the home of her brother, Rev. Samuel B. Smith, D. D., of Grand Rapids, Mich., April 20, 1888, having attained the ninetieth year of her age, and she now sleeps beside her kindred in Raisin Valley cemetery. In the later years of her life she wrote a book, entitled "A Woman's Life Work," in which she details her eventful career, and records many historical events to be found in no other volume. On June 24, 1909, the date of the biennial homecomers festival at Adrian, there was unveiled and dedicated a statue to the memory of this noble woman. A modest monument, corresponding to her simple dignity, marks the place where she sleeps, but the citizens of Adrian collected funds by popular subscription to erect a tribute to her memory that shall endure for the ages, in order that all who come after them may know who she was and what she did-that "the memory of the just shall not perish." Will Carleton, the poet, pronounced the eulogy and appropriate ceremonies were held. The statue is placed immediately in front of the city hall, facing north on Main street.

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History of Lenawee County
published by The Western Historical Society in 1909.

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