History of Lenawee County, Michigan - Chapter 33, Educational Development



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CHAPTER XXXIII. EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. GENERAL REMARKS-THE FIRST SCHOOL HOUSE IN THE COUNTYPAST AND PRESENT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AT TECUMSEHSECOND PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE COUNTY-BLISSFIELD SCHOOLSADRIAN SCHOOLS-SCHOOLS OF MADISON TOWNSHIP, OF DEERFIELD, OF CLINTON, OF RAISIN TOWNSHIP-THE RAISIN INSTITUTE -RAISIN VALLEY SEMINARY-SCHOOLS OF CAMBRIDGE, ROLLIN AND HUDSON-THE WILL CARLETON SCHOOL-SCHOOLS OF MEDINAMEDINA ACADEMY-SCHOOLS OF SENECA, DOVER, ROME AND WOODSTOCK-WOODSTOCK MANUAL LABOR INSTITUTE -SCHOOLS OF FRANKLIN, PALMYRA, FAIRFIELD, OGDEN. RIGA, RIDGEWAY AND MACON - SUMMARY - PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS -ADRIAN ,COLLEGE - BROWN'S BUSINESS COLLEGE. The younger members of the present generation in Lenawee county who enjoy the benefits of the modern schools, with which the public has liberally provided them, have but little conception of the "educational advantages" enjoyed by their' grandparents in the early .pioneer days. The equipments of those pioneer schools were of a. most primitive nature. Often they were nothing more than a log cabin or a frame shanty of the rudest type, of diminutive dimensions, with a door at one end, a fire place at the other, and one or two very small windows on either side. Long, backless seats were provided for the smaller children, while along the walls, tinder the windows, was arranged a broad board, often the only planed one in the building, for a writing desk. Occasionally, small tables and suitable seats were provided for the children old enough to write, though these were regarded as a luxury in those days. The school-master was furnished a chair, a small table, a few text books, and a bottle of ink, and often one of his qualifications was to know how to make a good quill pen, as steel pens were practically unknown in those, days. Reading, writing, and arithmetic- in common parlance denominated as "the three R's"-constituted the principal branches of the curriculum, though in some schools an old map would be hung upon the wall and utilized for general exercises in geography. Black-boards had not yet come into general use, and the text books were of divers varieties, written by various authors, so that efficient class-work was entirely impossible. Yet, notwithstanding the primitive conditions under which, their early scholastic training was attained, many of Lenawee's most successful men and women owe their present standing in the community to the log school-house on the frontier. The first school-house in the county was erected in the village of Tecumseh, late in the year 1824, by two of the pioneer settlers of that place-Musgrove Evans and Gen. Joseph VT., Brown. It was only twelve feet square, of tamarack logs, and was used mainly for the schooling of the children of the above named men, Mrs. George Spofford taught the first term of school therein, and later the building was for many years utilized as an office building by the firm of Wing, Evans & Brown. In the fail of 1825, a small frame school house -was built in the village, directly west of the old "Park square," so-called in the original plat of the village, where the East Branch and Intermediate school is now located. This virtually was the first public school in the county, the first term being taught by George Taylor, and later, Miss Alinza Blackmar, subsequently the wife' of Ezra F. Blood, became the teacher. Sirrell C. LeBaron, later a prominent and successful merchant of the village, opened the first grammar school of the county in that place, in the fall of 1832, and he continued to teach until 1836, when he sold the benches, text-books, and fixtures, to Benjamin Workman, who conducted the school for two years. In 1827, the legislature of the Territory of Michigan enacted that as soon. as twenty families were settled in a town, they should select three commissioners of common schools, who should hold their respective offices for three years, and whose duties should be to lease the school lands and apply the proceeds to the establishment and support of the common schools, and it was by virtue of this law that the first school district in the county was organized in Tecumseh, in 1838, largely through the efforts of Perley Bills, subsequently a prominent attorney of that place. On April 2, of the same year, the Tecumseh Academy, an institution offering a curriculum closely analagous to the high school of a later day, was incorporated by enactment of the Legislature. The incorporators were: George W. Jermain, Stillman Blanchard, Henry L. Hewitt, George Spofford, Seneca Hale, Daniel Pitman, Daniel G. Finch, Ezra F. Blood, and Michael A. Patterson. Subsequently, this institution became a branch of the State University, and Benjamin L. Baxter, upon his graduation from Dartmouth College, in 1843, was placed in charge thereof, remaining until 1846. On Feb. 13, 1849, another school, the Tecumseh Literary Institute, an institution looking to :`instruction in the various arts, literature, and sciences," was incorporated, Sirrell C. LeBaron, Alonzo 13. `Palmer, Increase S. Hamilton, Salmon Crane, Stillman Blanchard, Perley Bills, and Charles Spofford, being the incorporators. Michigan was one of the states which first adopted the union or graded school system, and by virtue of a law enacted in an early day several school districts might unite under one organization, whose aggregate resources would permit that classification of pupils characteristic of the graded school. Accordingly, the Tecumseh Union School District, which comprised the above mentioned district in the village and 'two in Tecumseh township, was organized and incorporated, in 1854, and a school building was erected in the village. Today there are four entirely adequate and commodious school-houses in the village of Tecumseh, there being fifteen teachers employed and 419 pupils enrolled therein during the school year, ending July 1, 1908, while the sum of $7,22 was paid for teachers' wages, an average of $481.66 per teacher, and the aggregate value of the school property in this district was estimated at approximately $53,000, indicating that it is the most valuable of any in the county, exclusive of that of the cities of Adrian and Hudson. S. W. Anderson is.the present director of the schools .of this district. There are three other school districts in the township of Tecumseh, there being but one teacher employed in each, and in the school year, 1907-o8, only $goo was paid out for the wages of teachers in these three districts, an average of $300 per district. During the same year sixty pupils were enrolled in these districts, district No. i having the largest enrollment, and district o. 5 the smallest. The second public school in the county, and the first to be erected in the present village of Blissfield, was built of logs during the summer of 1827, on the corner of Adrian and Monroe streets, and there the first term of school was taught by Chester Stuart, of Monroe, who received the liberal salary of "$13 per month and board around." Among the other early teachers were Thomas F, Dodge and George NWT. Ketchurn. Today the school-houses of two graded districts are situated in the village-the East and West sides, respectively. The second public school to be erected was built on the East Side, in 1869, at a cost of about $5,ooo. ' The value of the present East Side school property, the site included, is generally estimated at approximately $35,000, being one of the most valuable school properties in the county outside of the cities of Hudson and Adrian. Robert McWilliams is the present director, and James -H. Bancroft is the principal of this- school. During the school year of 1907-08, there were 232 pupils enrolled therein, who were instructed by seven teachers, to whom the sum total of $2,900 was paid in wages, $i,ooo to the principal, and $I,goo to the other six, an average of $316.66 to each of the latter. The school property of the West Side district is valued at about $7,000, and W. I. Ford is the present director. During the above mentioned school year three teachers were employed in this school, at a cost to the tax-payers of the district of $1,150, an average of $383.33 per teacher, while during the same period there were 158 pupils enrolled. There are five school districts in the township of Blissfield, exclusive of those in the village, each of which has but one room, and the teacher in each district received an average wage of $334.80, during the school year ending July I, 1908. During the same year there were 144 pupils enrolled in the five districts, an average of 20.8 per school, and the school in district No. 6 contained the largest enrollment, with fifty-seven pupils, while school No. 4 had the smallest attendance, with an enrollment of only eleven. The first school in the present city of Adrian (then the village of Logan) was opened, in the summer of 1828, by Miss Dorcas Dean, in the home of Dr. C. NT. Ormsby, the first frame house erected in the settlement, when there were but seven families in the village. The first school committee was formed during the same year, and a combined school and meeting house was built at the corner of South Main and Winter streets, where the residence at No. 5o South Main street now stands. The first term of school in this school-house was taught by David Buck, in the winter of 1828-29, and the old English reader, Cobb's spellinghook, and Morse's geography were the text books used. David Buck did not teach for any length of time, going farther West (where lie was drowned in the following year), and he was succeeded by Anson Jackson, who served the village as school-master for many years, being both competent and popular. Among the other early teachers were Messrs. Powers, Brewster, Inglis, Dixon, Ramsdell and Hance, while Miss Emma L. Keeney, subsequently Mrs. A. F. Bixby, and Miss Casey, later Mrs. Judge Norman Geddes, were among the most successful and accomplished , of the early women teachers. Previous to 1849, there were four school districts in the village, but in the fore part of that year the school inspectors 'of the townships of Adrian and Madison, in which these districts were situated, by virtue of the law which empowered them to act in such cases, united the four districts into one organization, which was incorporated by the state Legislature, the same year, under the title of "Adrian Union School District Number One." Alonso F. Bixby, clerk of the board of school inspectors of Adrian, then issued a call, dated March 27, 1849, to the tax-payers of the new district, to convene on April 12, following, "for the election of officers and the transaction of such other business 'asmay be necessary." After the meeting had convened, Dr. Parley J. Spalding was chosen as chairman, and Samuel Jordan, secretary, after which the first board of trustees was selected, being cornposed of the following: Richard H. Whitney, moderator; Warner M. Comstock, director; and Abel Whitney, assessor. Later, a committee, consisting of eight persons, two from each of the former districts, was selected "to examine and report at an adjourned meeting the different locations within this school district for the site of a school-house, also the price and terms of each location," the committee being composed of the following : John Barber, J. V. Watson, George Kennedy, Stephen Whiteborne, E. Vandegrift, James Field, William L. Greenly, James J. Newell, and Titus H. Treat. Ten days prior to the holding of this meeting, the state Legislature had enacted that "Adrian Union School District Number One" be authorized to borrow a sum not in excess of $io,ooo, for a term not longer than fifteen years, at a rate of interest not in excess of seven per cent., for the purchase of a site and the erection of a school-house, providing that the majority of the electors of the district, at a special election to be held on the first Monday of the ensuing month of June, vote in favor of such loan. But the loan was not made, and the school-house was not constructed for some time, as from the first there had been an active opposition to the consolidation of the four districts into one and the consequent construction of a union school-house. In the words of the late Hon. Charles M. Croswell, "It was a fact that some influential citizens, through motives which they believed to be right, vehemently opposed the organization of the new system from the very start; and it was with extreme difficulty 'and after considerable delay that the organization was finally put on a working basis." At the adjourned school meeting, the above mentioned committee of eight reported "that several propositions had been placed in their hands, but that they were unable to agree upon a site which would be for the best interests of the said school district." At a subsequent meeting of the taxable inhabitants of the district, however, Dr. John Cadnian, to whom the credit of consolidating the four districts into one is largely due, and who had acquired an intimate knowledge of the practical workings of the graded-school system while a resident of the state of New York, offered a resolution, "That a school-house be erected. 66 feet by 70 feet, three stories, high." This motion was adopted, and the following committee was appointed to report a plan for the. building: Dr. John Cadman, L. Dodge, E. H. Winans, F. C. Beaman, William L. Greenly, R. 1d. Whitney, John Barber, Daniel A. Loomis, A. Barnard, Marshall Iluntington, William L. Sheldon, and Thomas P. Thompson. At a special meeting of the district, held June 4, 1849, after a heated discussion, the following results were attained: The plan for the building, as reported by the above committee of twelve, was adopted; the site, as reported by the committee of eight, was accepted; and a resolution, offered by Dr. Cadman, and authorizing the raising of $2,000 as the first installment of the amount necessary to be raised by taxation for the purchase of the site, the erection, and the equipment of the school, was favorably acted upon; and at the regular annual meeting, held Sept. 24, 1849, the following officers were elected to constitute the board of trustees for the ensuing year: Elihu L. Clark, moderator; Henry Hart, director; Ira Ingals, assessor; and James Kingsland, Richard H. Whitney, M. N. Halsey, and A. G. Eastman, trustees. But that there was still considerable opposition to the erection of a union school-house is evidenced by the fact that, on Feb. 9, 1850, at a special school meeting, it was "resolved as the sense of this meeting, that, in view of the differences of opinion known to exist in the minds of the citizens composing this district as to the practicability of maintaining the present organization upon an equitable basis, that we respectfully request the inspectors of the common schools of the towns of Adrian and Madison to dissolve the district as at present organized." The minutes indicate that, after a heated discussion, Joseph H. Cleveland and A. S. Berry were appointed tellers, and that the vote on the resolution resulted, 51 for and 130 against. This was the final effort of the opposition, and the board of trustees, at the next annual meeting of the district, in September, 185o, was authorized, by a resolution offered by F. C. Beaman, "to proceed with all convenient dispatch to the erection of a building," after which the board for the ensuing year was selected as follows: Henry Hart, director; E. L. Clark, moderator; Daniel Larzelere, assessor; and F. C. Beaman, Richard II. Whitney, A. G. Eastman, and William L. Greenly, trustees. At the next annual meeting of the district, held in September of the following year, it was ordered that ~2,00o be raised by taxation as the third installment of the building fund, and the board was authorized "to contract for the erection of a suitable cupola upon the school building, and to obtain a bell for the same, provided the cost of the same shall not exceed $500. The new building, which was situated between East Church and East Maurnee streets, upon a site extending from one street to the other, and nearly opposite the present Central building, was occupied for school purposes for the first time, Sept. 13, 1852, M. S. Hawley commencing his two years' incumbency of the school superintendency at the same time. A vivid description of the building is furnished in the annual report of Franklin Hubbard, the successor of M. S. Hawley, to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, in the year 1855, viz.: "The Central building, or, according to the present plan, the Academy, is sixty by eighty, three stories high, with a well-finished basement under the entire building. The exterior is plain, but the interior is commodious and very pleasant. The building often contains 500 scholars or more. It will accommodate 312 scholars and give a large public lecture hall, a class lecture room, and a library room. The original cost of the building, with grounds, was $11,375,13.'' But this building soon became over-crowded, and between 1857 and 1861 it became necessary to provide increased accommodations for Adrian's school population. In 1857, the school familiarly termed the East Branch, between Nlc\Ticker and Tecumseh streets, on East Maumee, was erected, at an approximate cost of $5;000. The South Branch school, at the corner of South Main and East Beecher streets, was erected in 1859, costing about $3,500. The West Branch, located on the corner of West Maumee and McKenzie streets, was built in the year i86o, being enlarged in 1867, costing approximately $13,000. In 1861, the North Branch school, situated on the corner of Broad and Hunt streets, was constructed, at an approximate cost of $13,oo0. The Central building, after having been employed for school purposes for fourteen years, was burned to the ground, Aug. 1o, 1866, and on that very day influential citizens requested the school board to call a special school meeting of the district "for the purpose of taking measures to immediately rebuild the Central school-house." The meeting convened Aug. 22, at which time the board was authorized to procure plans for a building to cost at least $50,000, and the plans as drafted by Architect A. Barrows, of Adrian, were accepted by the tax-payers of the district at a subsequent school meeting. The building, which to this day is known as the Central school, was constructed on a beautiful and commodious site at the corner of East Church and Division streets, nearly opposite the site of the old building. The present magnificent high-school building, situated a few yards east of the Central school, and which is one of the most handsome and commodious school structures in the state of Michigan, was erected in the year 1907, the site, erection, and equipment of the same costing approximately $12o,00o. Robert A. Bradley, of Indianapolis, was the supervising architect, while Thomas Fay, of Kalamazoo, was the contractor, and Robert Darnton, president of the school board, was one of the principal instigators of the movement which resulted in the erection of this beautiful edifice. Since the consolidation of the schools of Adrian, in. 1849, the following have served as superintendents: M. W. Southworth, Nathan Britton, M. S. Hawley, Franklin Hubbard, William Air. Washburn, Newton W. Winchell, William H'. Payne, William J. Cocker, George W. Walker, A. F. Curtis, P. J. Wilson, and' the present incumbent, Charles W. Michens. During the school year, ending July -1, 1907, there were 2,003 pupils enrolled in the public schools of Adrian, of whom 319 attended the high school, 633 being enrolled in the grammar departments, and 1,051 in the primary grades, while the school population of Adrian-those ranging in age from five to twenty years-at the time of the compiling of the last state census, 'in 1904, was 2.498. During the above named school year, the city of Adrian paid out $27,261 in salaries to the instructional force in the public schools, the superintendent's salary included. It has been estimated that the average cost per capita for the instruction of the pupils of the Adrian high school during the same year was $30.30, while the same for pupils attending the grammar grades of the city-the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth-was $14.63, and in the primary grades it was $16.35. The average cost per capita for instruction 'in all departments was $18.rg. The public school system of Adrian, with its fine elaborate high school, its adequate and well-ventilated central and branch buildings, its efficient and highly qualified corps of teachers, with the practical and liberal courses of instruction offered, is equalled by but few and excelled by no other in the great commonwealth of Michigan. The first school-house in the township of Madison stood at the corner of South Main and printer streets, in the present city of Adrian, being the above named first public school-house to be erected in Adrian, in which David Buck taught the first term of school and it was erected in the year 1828. The second school-house to be erected in that township stood on the northwest quarter of section No. 23, where the antiquated Randolph tavern now stands, on a tract of land then owned by Cassander Peters. During the school year 1907-08, there were 203 pupils, enrolled in the eight district schools of the township, the school in district No. 7 enjoying the largest enrollment, with thirty-one pupils, while the smallest number were enrolled in school No. 2, where only fifteen attended school. During the same school year, the eight teachers employed in these schools-one in each district-received in the aggregate as salaries the sum of $2,677, an average of $334.70 per teacher. There are no graded schools in the township of Madison. The first term of school in the present village of Deerfield, then known as Kedzie's Grove, was taught by Miss Amelia Bjxby, of Adrian, in the fall of 1829. Today there is a commodious graded school in the village, in which five teachers are employed. During the school year which ended July I, 19o8, the sum of $2,070 in salaries was paid to these teachers, an average of $414 per pedagogue, and during the same year 146 children were enrolled. in the five school-rooms, an average of 29.20 pupils per room. N. D. Yale is the present director of this school. There are five district schools in the township of Deerfield, which were attended by 171 children during the school year 1907-08, an average of 34.20 pupils per school, who received their instruction from five teachersthere being but one teacher in each district. The aggregate sum of $1,845 in wages was paid to the five teachers, an average of $369 per teacher. The school in district No. 3 enjoyed the largest attendance, there being fifty-four pupils enrolled, while the school in district No. 6 had the smallest attendance, twenty-one. John J. Adam, later treasurer and auditor of the state of Michigan, taught the first term of school in Clinton, in the fall of 1832. At the present time the village has one of the most efficient graded school systems in -the county. The brick school building, which was erected in 1906, is an ornament to the town and bespeaks the liberality of the tax-payers of the village; and the value of this property, the site and equipment included, is esti-- mated at approximately $23,000, which carries a bonded indebtedness of $12,900. During the school year 1907-08, there were seven public school teachers employed in the village, at an aggregate cost to the taxable inhabitants thereof of $3,360.80, an average of $480 per pedagogue, while during the sane period there were 185 pupils enrolled in the seven school-rooms, an average of 26.42 per room. J. Robinson is now the director of the school district, while S. R. Houghton is principal, having succeeded R. C. Young, in the fall of 19o8. There are four school districts in the township, exclusive of the graded school district of the village, each of which has a one-room school, there having been seventy-six children enrolled therein during the school year which ended July i, 1908, an average of nineteen pupils to each district. District No. i enjoyed the largest enrollment, and district No. 5 the smallest; and $1,184.70 -an average of $296.17 to each teacher-was paid out for teachers' wages in the four districts. _ The first school-house in the township of Raisin was built of logs, in 1832, in what later came to be known as the Conkling district, and-in the winter of 1832 a young school-master by the name of Reuben Hall taught the first term of school. Another log school-house was erected at Holloway's Corners, at the southwest corner of section 23, in the spring of 1835, in which building the first term of school was taught by Miss Mary Ann Simonds. This school house was virtually a log cabin of the rudest type. A large fire,-place stood at one end of the school-room, and the seats were slabs-the flat side up-resting on legs, while the few desks it contained consisted of rough boards laid across pegs, which had been driven into the logs along either side of the room. About 1837, "Aunt" Laura Haviland, one of the most unique yet philanthropic characters known to Lenawee county and the state of Michigan in general (a sketch of whose career appears in another chapter), with her husband, Charles Haviland, Jr., opened a manuallabor school on their premises in the township of Raisin, at first calling it the Graham school, but subsequently it came to be known as the Raisin Institute. It was incorporated by legislative enactment, Nlarch 17, 1847, and was the first.school in the state of Michigan to open its doors to students of good moral character, regardless of sex, religious affiliations, or color, and the first pupils to attend were nine children from the Lenawee county poorhouse, who were maintained entirely at the expense of the institute for more than a year. Out of this noble enterprise were developed the two splendid industrial schools of the state-the one for boys at Coldwater, the other for girls at Adrian. This institution, which was situated about two miles east of the Raisin Valley Seminary, in the township of Raisin, has long since passed from existence. The last mentioned institution of learning, which offered a curriculum similar to the high-school courses of the present day, was founded in I85o, under the auspices of the Friends' (Quaker) church of tile township of Raisin, on a beautiful wooded site in the southeast quarter of section nineteen, about four miles northeast of Adrian_ It was one of the early pioneer schools of Michigan, and during its fifty-eight years of existence was recognized as a most helpful and stimulating influence, not only in its immediate sur, soundings, but throughout the length and breadth of the state. While it was tinder the jurisdiction and management of the Friends its doors stood open to all who soughs an education, irrespective of denominational or religious views. The seminary was maintained largely through endowments of its generous friends, Moses Sutton alone having donated more than $23,oo0, and for many years the residence of the late Darius Comstock-father of Addison J., the founder of Adrian-constituted one of ' the school buildings of the institution. The school was discontinued in the fall of :[9o8_ At the present time, there are twelve ungraded district schools in the township of Raisin, though school was conducted in but eleven of these during the school year 1907-08, none being taught in district No. i, because of a dearth of children of school age therein. During the same period, there were 300 pupils enrolled in the schools of the township, district No. z enjoying the largest enrollment, with, thirty-six pupils, while district No. 2 had the smallest attendance, with an enrollment of only twenty-one. The sum of $4,007.50 was paid to the eleven teachers of the township for their services during the above school year, an average of $364.31 per teacher. The first school-house in the township of Cambridge was erected of tamarack logs, in the eastern portion of the township, in 1835, on the site of the present Springville school-house, at the northeast corner of the northwest quarter of section twentythree, the first term of school therein commencing in the fall of that year. Another school-house was built in the western portion of the township, near Deep Lake, during the ensuing winter. Today there are nine school districts which have their school-houses in this township, all of them being one-room schools, with the exception of the one in district No. 5, which includes the village of Ousted, and which is a two-department school, the value of the building and the site upon which it stands being estimated at $2,5oo, being the most valuable school property in the township of Cambridge. During the school year which closed on July 1, 19o8, the sum of $855 was paid to the two teachers of the district, an average of $427.50 per pedagogue, and during the same period there were sixty-three pupils enrolled in this school, it having the largest enrollment of any of the schools in the township, district No. 8 having the smallest, with only seven pupils. Exclusive of the Onsted school, there were, in the above school year, 138 children enrolled in the public schools of the township, an average of 17.25 to each district, the sum of $2,328.75 being paid to the eight teachers of these districts for their services, an average. of $291.09 per district. The school property in district No. 3 is the second most valuable in the township, being generally estimated at approximately $1,500, while those in districts 4 and 7 are the poorest, being estimated at $6o and $70, respectively. The school property of the nine districts of the township, that of the village of Ousted included, is valued at about $6,ooo, an average of $658.88 to each district. Lucretia Beal taught the first term of school in the township of Rollin, at the home of John F. Comstock, during the summer of 1836, and the first school-house was erected in the fall of the same year, on a tract of .land then in the possession of Samuel Crout, the first term of school being taught by William Rhoades. Today there are eight district schools in the township, each containing one school room. During the school year which was concluded on July z, 19o8, the sum of $3,142.20 was paid to eight teach ers of the township for their services, an average of $392.77 for each district, while during the same year there were 219 pupils enrolled in the schools of the township, the largest enrollment being recorded in district No. 8, where forty-five attended school, while the smallest number was enrolled in district No. 5, only twelve attending school there. This township has some of the most adequate and commodious rural schools to be found in the county, the aggregate value of the school property of the eight districts, at the close of the above named school year, being estimated at $9,500. The school property in district No. i is the most valuable in 1 he township, its present value being estimated at approximately $2.000. The first term of school in the city of Hudson, then termed the village of Lanesville, was taught by Miss Adelia Chamberlain, in a log dwelling house, in the summer of 1836, on the site later occupied by the long low store building of the firm of J. K. Boies & Co., on the east side of Church street, the west portion of the last named building being used for school purposes after its completion, in 1841. The East Side school district was organized and incorporated in the same year, then being known as School District No. 5, of the township of Hudson, and later a frame school house was erected near the residence of Dr. Thomas B. Minchen, the building later being removed to a site near the home of Samuel C. Perkins, on West High street, where for many years it was employed as a cooper shop. The fore part of the school building on the West Side, commonly termed the Central School, which contains the high school department of the city, as well as the primary and grammar grades, was erected in. 186o, at a cost of approximately $6,oao, and it was remodeled and enlarged in 1891. . It is situated on an ele-. vated site, partially wooded, on the south side of , Washington street, overlooking the city, the site being generally recognized as one of the most beautiful in the state, the broad spacious lot affording a most excellent play-grounds for the pupils. The Third ward school building, more commonly termed the East Side school, was erected in 1862, on Hill street, while the small North Branch school on North street -was built in 1874. For several years, in the early 'history of the village, there were two separate and distinct school districts in Hudson, commonly known as the East and West side districts, the schools in each being entirely independent of each other. But in 1866, they were united and incorporated by legislative enactment into "The Public Schools of the Village of Hudson," remaining united until May I, 1869, when they again became separate and distinct units, and though the adherents of the "joint district" zealously strove to reunite them during the eighth decade of the last century, they remained independent units up to the year 1881, when they were once more combined by legislative enactment, and so they have remained to the present day. The first class of high school pupils was graduated from the West Side school in 1875, six receiving the certificates of graduation at that time, the successful ones being Hattie Beach, Clara Boies, Lillian Galuslla, Ida Harris, Allie Perkins and Edmund Childs. Among the early principals of this school were Prof. James (later assistant superintendent of the schools of the city of Cleveland), F. B. McClelland, Carson C. Van Dorn (who was principal of the two schools from 1866 to 1869, when they were united), E. G. Reynolds, C. D. West and C. F. Bateman, while among the early principals of the East Side school were Messrs. F. B. McClelland, J. C. Dutton, Overholt, Luther W. Covell, Carson and Coleman Williams. J. F. Rieman, formerly superintendent of the schools of Monroe, Mich., is now city superintendent of the Hudson schools, having commenced his duties in September, 19aS, succeeding Jean Wilcox, and Vernon 1V. Main is the present principal of the Hudson High School, while in addition there is a teaching force of fifteen teachers, four of whom instruct the pupils of the high school proper, five are employed in the primary and grammar grades of Central school, four teach in the East Side, or Third ward school, one is engaged in the -North Branch school, and another, Miss Eleanor Kelley, supervises the music and drawing work in all the schools. During the school year, which ended July r, 1907, there were 585 persons of school age-five to twenty years-in the city of Hudson, 567 of whom attended, the public schools, r5; .being enrolled 'in the high school department, 169 and 243 attending the grammar and primary grades, respectively. There are ten schools in the township of Hudson, including the graded school in the village of Clayton. During the school year of 1907-'oS there were eighty-five pupils enrolled in the three depart ments of the last named school, and the sum of $1,305 was paid to the three teachers for services, an average of $435 per pedagogue. Within the last year the old school house was condemned by the state school authorities, and there is now in the process of construction a handsome commodious brick school building, which is to cost approximately $12,000. It is located on an elevated wooded site in the western portion of the village, overlooking the main line of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, and well may the citizens of Clayton and the school district take pride in the erection of this edifice. There are at the present time nine ungraded district schools in the township of Hudson, which, during the school year'ending July 1, 19o8, were attended by 155 children, district No. 3 enjoying the largest enrollment, with 35 pupils, while-the smallest attendance was recorded in district No. 5, with an enrollment of six, and during the same year $2,407.50 in teachers' salaries was paid out in the nine districts, an average of $267.50 for each district. The school in district 'No. 4, situated about one and one-half miles east of the corporation' limits of the city of Hudson, of which F. M. Childs is the present director, is now popularly termed the Will Carleton school, because of the fact that Will Carleton, one of America's renowned literary men, not only attended school there as a boy, but later also officiated as school-master. The most valuable rural public school property in the township of Hudson is sit- uated in district No. io, in which district Asa B. Copping is the present school director, the school house with its site and equipment being valued at about $1,000, but the school property in this township is rather below the average, suffering in comparison with that to be found in the neighboring townships of Rollin and Medina. The first school in the township of Medina was opened in the village of Canandaigua, in the summer of 1836, Mrs. Increase S. Hamilton teaching the first term of school. In the fall of the same year, another school house was built of logs, on the southeast quarter of section 23, on land then owned by Benjamin Rogers, and the first term was conducted during the ensuing winter. A third school was opened by a Miss Colgrove, in the log cabin of John R. Foster, near the northeast corner of section 3, during the same winter; so Medina township, as early as the winter of 1836-37 had three different schools. About 1845 Mr. and Mrs. Barrows opened a select boarding school in the central portion of the township, conducting it under the auspices of the Congregational church, most of the students coming from families affiliated with that denomination. In 1853 the citizens of Medina, feeling the need,of more adequate school facilities than was afforded in the common rural schools of the township, organized a joint stock company and erected a school house, thirty by fifty feet and two stories high, in which was offered a curriculum similar to that presented in the graded school of today, there being also a preparatory department corresponding to the modern high school, looking to the preparation of young people for college. It was first christened the "Oak Grove Academy," though later it came to be known as the "Medina Academy," being incorporated .tinder the latter appellation by legislative enactment in 1872. The first term of school was conducted by Alonzo M. Carson and wife, of Hudson, O. L. Spaulding becoming principal the following year. Among the other early instructors there were Edwin Cook, of Chicago; Byron M. Cutcfleon, of Manistee, Mich., who later became prominent as a member of Congress; a Mr. Swan, of Exeter, N. H.; John Drake, of New York, and Edwin B. Sayers and Henry ASV. Norton, of Lenawee county. The school enjoyed a very successful career, and its alumni adorn every walk in life, from the distinguished statesman to the successful and independent farmer. Today there are thirteen ungraded district schools in the township of Medina, more than in any other township in the county, while the school property is as a general rule far more adequate and valuable than that in the average township. It has been estimated that the aggregate value of such property in this township is about $ia,ooo, an average of more than $goo per district, while that in district No. 8 is generally considered the most adequate, its value being estimated at approximately $I,Soo and the school houses in districts No. I, 2, 3, 6, 7, 1o and 2o are entirely adequate, commodious, and well ventilated buildings. During the school year 1go7-'o8 there were 290 children enrolled in the thirteen schools of the township, an average of 22.3 per district, district No. x, the Canandaigua district enjoying the largest attendance, with an enrollment of thirty-five, while the smallest enrollment was recorded in district No. ii, where only twelve attended school during the year. During the same year the sum of $4,703.75 in wages was paid to the teachers, an average of $361.82 for each district. At the present time there are no graded ov department schools in the township. There are ten school districts in the township of Seneca, including the graded district of Morenci. The old Central building in the last named place was erected in 1872, at an approximate cost of about $13,000, the bonded indebtedness of the district at that time being about $12,000, while at the close of the school year of 19o7-'08 the bonded indebtedness approximated $30,000. Today there is in process of construction in Morenci a handsome, commodious brick school structure, which upon its completion will have cost the liberal taxpayers of the district in the neighborhood of $35,000, and it will stand for years as an appropriate monument to the generosity and far-sightedness of these public-spirited citizens. During the school year 19o7-'o8 there were 2go pupils enrolled in the nine school rooms of this district, as many as attended school in the thirteen districts of the township of Medina during the same period, an average of 32.2 pupils per room. Today the teaching corps in the Morenci schools is comprised of nine competent teachers, to whom the sum of $4,028.67 in salaries was paid during the above school year, an average of $44.7.63 to each pedagogue. There are nine ungraded district schools in the township of Seneca, each of which has but one school room, and during the school year, which concluded July I, 1808, the sum of $3,218.75 was paid to the nine teachers of the township,. an average of $357.63 per district, while during the same period 239 children attended these rural schools, an average of 26.5 pupils per district, the school in district No. 2, of which C. C. Kinney is the present director, having forty-one pupils enrolled, the largest enrollment in the township, whereas the school in district No. 4 recorded the smallest enrollment, as only twelve went to school there during the year. With the exception of those in the village of Morenci, there are no graded or department schools in the township of Seneca. The at, gregate value of the district school property of this township, exclusive of that in Morenci district, has been authoritatively estimated to be about $7,000 The school house in district No. 2 is generally recognized as the most adequate and commodious rural school building in the township, its value, the site and equipment included, being computed at approximately $I,5oo, while those in districts No. 1, 3, 7, 8, and io are considerably more adequate and valuable than the school of the average rural district. The present school population of the township of Dover receives its scholastic training in the ten ungraded district schools of that township. During the school year 1907-'OS there were 196 children enrolled in these schools, an average of 19.6 pupils to each district, the largest number being enrolled in district No. 9, where thirtynine attended school during the above year, whereas but five attended the school in district No. 2; and during the same period, a total of $3,152.75 in the form of wages was paid to the ten teachers in the township, an average of $315.27 per district. At the conclusion of the above school year it was estimated, by persons fully qualified to judge thereof, that all of the school property included within the ten districts was worth the aggregate sum of $8,750, that in district No. 4, including two school houses, only one of which had been employed for school purposes during that year, however, being looked upon as the most adequate, its value being placed at $3,000. There are no graded or department schools in this township. Today there are nine school districts in the township of Rome, each of which maintains one ungraded school. During the school year ending July I, 1908, 2oi children of school age attended these schools, an average of 22.3 to each district. The school in district No. 3 enjoyed the largest enrollment, forty-six attending school there, while districts No. 2 and 8 had the smallest enrollment, the schools in each being attended by only ten pupils. During the above school year the nine teachers in the schools of the township received for their services the aggregate sum of $3,181, an average of $35344 per pedagogue. The school houses in this township are more adequate and commodious than those in the great majority of rural districts, it being estimated that the aggregate value of these, their sites and equipment included, at the close of the school year 1907-'08 was approximately $10,500, an average of $i,i66.66, to each district. The school property in district No. i, in which district M. J. Merillat is now director, was at that time appraised at $2,000, being generally considered as the most adequate and valuable in the entire township, while that in districts No. 7, 3 and i, in which Justin R. Curtis, George Pawson and William Southard, respectively, are the school directors, was valued at approximately $1,500 each, and the value of the school properties in districts No. 4, 6 and 8, in which districts N. D. Davison, D. A. McRoberts and William A. Porter are the respective directors, was estimated -at $1,00o each. The school houses in districts No. 2 and- 5, in which communities Porter Jacox and Lester Evans are the respective directors of-school affairs, were appraised at the lowest value of any in the township of Rome, $6oo and 550, respectively. At the present time there are no graded schools in this township. The first school in the township of Woodstock was established during the early 40's of the last century. On Feb. 19, 1848, the " Woodstock Manual Labor Institute," a school looking to the instruction of the youth of the township in mathematics, literature, the arts and sciences, and ancient languages, was incorporated by legislative enactment, James G. Birney, William P. Russell, Prior Foster, Joseph Ilewitt, William AV. Jackson, and Joseph Foster being the incorporators. The doors of this institute were thrown open to all desirous of securing an education, irrespective of color, sex, or religious affiliations, and though it performed a beneficial service in that section of the county, the educational needs of the community were later fulfilled by the establishment of the graded school in the present village of Addison, in I86o, and the Manual Institute has long since passed from existence. The afore mentioned graded school in Addison was erected at a cost of approximately $3,000, when S. A. Lombard was director of the school board in that district, but that building has been replaced by the present more adequate and commodious edifice, the value of which, the site and equipment included, is today estimated at about $15,000, it housing the three departments requisite to an efficient and complete public school system, viz : the primary, grammar and high school departments. This school district carries a bonded indebtedness of $9,700, and L. S. Darling is the present director of the school board. During the school year, which was concluded July 1, 1908, 134 children of school age were enrolled at this school, receiving their instruction from five competent teachers, to whom, during that year, the aggregate sum of $2,190 was paid in salaries, an average of $438 per teacher. There are seven ungraded district schools in the township of Woodstock, which, during the school year of 1907-'08 were attended by 148 children of school age, an average of 21.i pupils to each district. During the same year the seven teachers of these schools were paid the aggregate sum of $1,907, an average of $272.42 to each pedagogue. At the present time the aggregate value of the school property of these seven districts approximates $5,500, an average of about $785.71 per district, the properties in districts No. 4 and 5, in which districts S. D. Drake and C. D. Binns are directors of the respective school boards, being generally considered the most adequate in the township, their value being estimated at about $1,200. During the above named school year the largest attendance in the township was recorded in district No. 7, where Martin Ruoff is the present director of the school board, and in which thirty-six children were enrolled during the year, whereas the smallest enrollment was recorded in district No. 8, where only eight pupils attended school. There are no graded schools in the township of Woodstock, exclusive of that in the village of Addison. During the school year 1907-'08 there were ten ungraded district schools in the township of Franklin, though no school was conducted in one of these districts, No. 3, during that year. The sum of $2,988.62 in teachers' wages was paid out to the nine pedagogues employed in the schools of the township during the same period, an average of $332.06 to each district, while 213 pupils were enrolled in the nine schools taught that year, an average of 22.6 per district, the school in district No. 5, in which William J. Fridd is director of the school board, recording the largest enrollment, with an attendance of thirty-six, while the smallest number attended the school in district No. 6, where there were but fifteen enrolled. The aggregate value of the school property of the entire township has been authoritatively estimated at $9,700, an average of $97o to a district, for the ten districts maintaining school property. That in district No. 1, in which Irving C. Luce is the director of the school board, is the most adequate in the district, its value having been, by one fully competent to judge thereof, placed at $2,000, while the school houses in districts No. 2, 4 and 7, in which districts L. C. Harrison, Clarence M. Merritt and G. A. Van Dusen are the respective directors of the boards, have been appraised at $i,6oo, $i,ooo and $1,500 respectively, whereas those school properties in districts No. 3, 5 and 10, in which George Taylor, William J. Fridd and C. R. Allison, respectively, are directors of the boards, are looked upon as the least adequate in the township. There are no graded or department schools within the township. One of the first school houses to be erected in the township of Adrian was built about 1836, in district 1To. 9, largely through the efforts of William Knight, one of the early pioneer settlers in that township, and the father of William H. Knight, present proprietor of the Mapleside Fruit, Grain and Stock Farm. There are eleven ungraded district schools in this township which, during the year 1907-'08, were attended by 244 pupils, an average of 22.1 per district, the largest number being enrolled in district No. 2, with an enrollment of thirty-seven. This district includes a portion of the township of Rome, the school house therein standing on section 18, in the township of Adrian, and W. L. Beebe is the director of the school board. The smallest enrollment was recorded in district No. 15, where but thirteen children attended school during the above school year. C. W. Spielman is the present director of the board in this district. The school houses of this township are more adequate and commodious. than those of any township in the county, and during the year ending July 1, 19o8, the aggregate value of these, their sites and equipment included, was estimated at approximately $13,5oo. Districts 4, 8 and 9 are considered the most valuable, each of which was appraised at $2,000, and W. A. Earles, E. G. Titus and H. E. Burnett are the directors of the school boards in these districts, respectively, whereas the school building in district 10, in which E. A. Nash is the present director of the board, was the least adequate in the township, its value, the site and equipment included, being estimated at only $400. During the above school year the sum of $3534 was paid to the eleven woman teachers of the schools of the township, an average of $321.27 per district, the highest wages being paid in district No. 2, in which the teacher received $405 for her nine months' services, while the least amount was paid out in district ii, where the pedagogue in charge received only $27o as compensation, though but eight months of school were taught there. There are no graded schools in this township, and many of those children desirous of securing more advanced scholastic training than that afforded in the district schools of the township attend the high school in the city of Adrian. There are nine schools in the township of Palmyra, including the graded school in .the village of Palmyra. During the school year 1907-'08 the last named school, which contains two departments-primary and grammar-was attended by only thirty-one' pupils, though the school population of the district-those persons ranging in age from five to twenty years-was at that time ninetynine. The two teachers therein received an aggergate salary of $860, an average of $430 per teacher, and James E. Jacklin was director of the school board. The school property in this districtthe most adequate in the township-is valued at about $2,500. During the above mentioned school year the eight ungraded district schools of the township of Palmyra were attended by 198 pupils of school age, an average of 24.7 to each district, the school in district No. 2, in which A. G. Rood is now director, recording the largest enrollment, thirty-eight attending school there, while the least number went to school in district No. 3, in which L. T. Lochner is the present director, where but twelve were enrolled during the entire year. During the same year the eight pedagogues received an, aggregate sum of $2,812.50 as compensation, an average of $351.56 per teacher, the highest salary having been paid in district No. 2, where the teacher received $382.50 for her nine months' services, while the teachers in districts 3 and 8 received the least compensation, each receiving $315 for their nine months of trials and tribulations. At the close of the school year, the value of the entire school property in the township, exclusive of that in the graded district in the village, was placed at $4,000, that in district 7, in which district I. E. Dawson is the director, being valued at about $1,200, and generally considered as the most adequate in the township, while the school buildings in districts 3, 4 and 8, their sites and equipment included, were appraised at approximately $1,ooo and the properties in districts 1, 2, 3 and 9, as regards their adequateness, were far below those in the other districts of this township. There are eleven schools in the township of Fairfield, including those of two departments in the villages of jasper and Weston. During the school year ending July 1, 1908, there were sixty-eight pupils enrolled in the jasper school, instructed by two teachers, who, during the same year, were paid the aggregate salary of $1,o1g, an average of $509.50 each. The valuation of the school property at the close of the above school year, was appraised at $2,500, including the second most adequate and commodious school house in the township. During the school year 19o7-'o8 there were seventy-one children of school age enrolled in the two departments -the primary and grammar-of the school in the village of Weston, and they received their instruction from two competent pedagogues, to whom was paid the aggregate wage of $955, an average of $477.50 per teacher. The school is the most adequate and commodious in the township of Fairfield, its valuation, the site and equipment included, being estimated at approximately $4,500, in- dicating it to be far and away the most valuable school property in the township. There are nine rural ungraded district schools in the township of Fairfield, each of which employed but one teacher during the year 19o7-'oS, at an aggregate cost of $2,441, an average of $271.22 per district. Districts 2 and 14 paid the highest salaries -$405 each-while district No. 5 paid out the least amount for wages-$21o-thougll but seven months of school were conducted therein. During the same school year 207 pupils attended these nine rural schools, an average of twenty-three pupils to each district, the largest number-thirty-two-being enrolled in district 9, in which Silas C. Baker is director,, and the school in district 12, wherein T. H. Ragless is now the director, was attended by the least number, but eleven being enrolled there during the entire school year. The aggregate valuation of the school property of the nine districts has recently been fixed at about $7,500, an average per district of about $833. That in district 7, in which A. D. Pratt is director, was given the highest valuation, being estimated at approximately $2,000, while that in district 3, in which E. F. Davis is now school director, was valued at only $4ob, indicating that the school property of this district is the least adequate in the township. During the school year 1907-'08 there were 360 pupils enrolled in the nine school districts of the township of 0-den, all of which districts contained single department schools, with the exception of district No. I, which had a school of two departments-primary and grammar-with fifty-seven pupils enrolled therein, and taught by two teachers, who received for their services an aggregate sum of $8io, an average of $405 each. The school property in the last named district is the most valuable in the township, its valuation being appraised at $4,000, and B. B. Wotring is the present director of the school board. During the same school year, the eight rural ungraded schools of the township were attended by 303 children of school age, an average of 37.8 to each school. The eight teachers of these schools received a total sum of $2,i92.75 in the form of wages, an average of $349.09 each. District No. 2, in which S. S. Porter is now director, paid the highest salary-$425 for the yearwhile district No. 5, of which Richard Leake is director, expended the smallest sum for this purpose-only $304-though only eight months of school were conducted there during the year, the last named district enjoying the largest enrollment-forty-nine-and the smallest number-twenty-three-was enrolled in district No. 3, in which George Atkins is now director. The school property of this township.is far more adequate than that of the average town- ship, the aggregate valuation of the same being authoritatively placed at $8,8oo, an average of $i,ioo to each district, that in district No. 8, in which George R. Fogelsong is director, being' the most commodious and adequate, being appraised at $2,000. There are ten schools in the township of Riga, including the three-department schools in district No. i, which district includes the village of Riga and a portion of the township of Blissfield. During the school year 1907-'08 there were 114 children enrolled in the last named school-sixty-four boys and fifty girls, who were taught by three teachers who received in the aggregate the sum of $1,260, an average of $420 per teacher. The school house in this district is far and away the most adequate in the township, its valuation, site and equipment included, having been estimated at $4,ooo at the close of the above school year. The, school property in the other nine districts was at that time computed to be worth in the aggregate the sum of $7,700, an average of X855.55 for each dis trict, that in district No. 5, of which William Hazard is the present school director, having been appraised at the highest valuation$1,400, whereas the school property in district No. 7, in which Henry J. Miller is the present director of school affairs, was given the lowest valuation--$5oo. The school in this district, along with that in district No. 3, wherein Herman Goetz is director, had at that time the smallest enrollment -of any of the schools of the township, each having had an enrollment of twenty-four during the above school year. The enrollment of the nine rural schools during the same year aggregated 304, an average of 33.7 per district, that in district No. 9, wherein Alexander Forsyth is director, enjoying the largest attendance, as many as fifty-seven pupils having been en rolled there. During the same period the salaries paid to the teach ers in these nine districts aggregated $3,609.50, an average of $401.55 per district, the teacher in the district enjoying the largest enrollment-No. 9-receiving $516, which was the most lucrative salary paid to pedagogues in the entire township, those of the school of the village included, while district No. 6, in which George Maierle is director, expended the least amount for this purpose $336-though only eight months of school were conducted. There are two department or graded schools and four that are ungraded in the township of Ridgeway. The graded school of the village of Britton, one of three departments, is the largest in the township, and during the school year 1907-'08 there were 1o6 pupils enrolled therein, an average of 35.5 to each department. During the same period the sum expended for the wages of the three teachers aggregated $1,352, an ,average of $4.50.60 per teacher. The school property in this district is by far the most adequate and valuable in the township of Ridgeway, its value having been com puted at $9,000 at the close of the above school year. The school in the village of Ridgeway-district No. i-which district includes a portion of the township of Macon, and of which Cyrus Under wood is now the director, contains two school rooms, and the school property of this district is valued at approximately $2,000. During the school year which concluded July 1, 19o8, there were enrolled in this district seventy-five pupils-thirty-four. boys and forty-one girls-who received their instruction from two competent teachers; to whom was paid the aggregate sum of $896.5o in the form of wages, an average of $428.25 per pedagogue. There are, four ungraded district schools in this township, which were attended by 104 pupils, an average of twenty-six to each district, and the four teachers of these schools received for their services the urn of $1,320, an average of $330 per district, the teacher in district No. 3, in which A. E. Palmer is now director, having received the highest salary-$4o5-while district No. 9, wherein W. C. Spohr is director, expended the smallest amount 'for this purpose, the pedagogue therein receiving but $315 foi her nine months of trial and tribulations. The aggregate valuation of the school properties of these four districts has recently been estimated at $4,100, an average of $1,025 to each district, that in district No. 3, in which the school house stands on the southeast quarter of. section 9, being the most adequate and valuable in the township, exclusive of that in the villages of Britton and Ridgeway, its valuation having been computed at $1,500, and this district also enjoyed the largest attendance during the above named school year, forty children of school age having been enrolled therein. During the school year 1go7-'o8 there were 181 pupils enrolled in the nine schools of the township of Macon, all of which were comprised of a single department, with the exception of that in the village of Macon, district No. 1, of which C. D. Ellis is the present director, and which contained two departments, primary and grammar, respectively. This school enjoyed the . largest attendance during the same period, having an enrollment of thirty-seven pupils, who received their instruction from two teachers to whom was paid the aggregate wage of $765, an average of $382.50 each. The school property in this district is the most adequate in the township, its valuation having recently been estimated at $1,500, while the aggregate valuation of the school properties in the other eight districts was at the same time computed at $3,700, an average of $462.50 per district. That in districts 3 and 8,, wherein Frank Gilmore and Charles Hindes are the respective school directors, was computed at approximately $i,ooo and $1,200 respectively, indictating that the properties of these districts are the most adequate. of any in the township outside of that in the village of Macon. During the same school year, $2,529 was expended for the salaries of the teachers in the eight rural districts, an average of $316.12 for each district, the pedagogue in district No. 8 receiving the largest sum for her services-$36o-for the nine months' school year, while the least amount for this purpose was paid out in district No. 6, wherein Samuel Patterson is now director. The largest enrollment in the rural districts of the township of Macon was recorded in district No. 4, in which Edgar Auten is school director, and where thirty-two children attended school during the year, and the smallest number went to school in district No. 5, wherein E. J. McIntyre is the present director, and in which only six pupils were enrolled. To summarize, there are in the county of Lenawee, 196 school districts, the cities of Adrian and Hudson included, of which 179 maintain a school of but one department, an ungraded school in common parlance, while nineteen contain one or more schools, each of which is composed of two or more departments, commonly termed graded schools. But the schools of only twelve of these nineteen so-called graded districts are graded in the strictest sense of the word-according to the state law applying to and governing graded schools-they being those in the cities of Adrian and Hudson, the two districts of the village of Blissfield, and the villages of Addison, Britton, Clayton, Clinton, Deerfield, Morenci, Palmyra and Tecumseh, and though the schools of the villages of Jasper, Macon, Ogden, Onsted, Ridgeway, Riga, and Weston are graded as regards all practical purposes, they are not graded in the eyes of the graded school law, and in the statistics below they are classified as nngraded schools. According to the annual report of the State Commissioner of Public Instruction, issued in the summer of 1907, there were in the so-called graded-school districts of the county, 5,279 persons of school age-five to twenty yearswhile in the districts maintaining ungraded schools, there was a school population of 6,604, indicating that the school population of the entire county was then 11,883. The same report sets forth that there were, during the school year, 4,200 enrolled in the county's graded schools, while there were 4,876 in the ungraded, and that the cost per, capita for the instruction of pupils in the graded schools was $14.83, whereas the same in the ungraded was $12.21, an average of $13.43 for the entire county. During the same period the average cost of educating each pupil, all expenditures considered, in the graded districts was $26.57, while the same for the ungraded districts was $15.68, an average of $20.72, in all districts of the county. The number of teacher's positions occupied in the ungraded schools during the school year 1906-'07 was 200, whereas the number of teachers required in the graded districts was 126, and during the same period forty-nine male teachers and 301 female teachers were employed in both the graded and the ungraded school districts of the county, the wages paid to the men that year aggregating $24,968.17, and to the women $96,929.12, an average monthly wage to the men of $6o.6o, and to the women $39.55. It has recently been estimated, by one who is fully qualified to judge thereof, that the aggregate valuation of the school property of the entire county, including school buildings, their sites and equipment, will approximate the enormous sum of $700,ooo, this computation including those school houses which are now in the process of construction. The average length of the school year of the schools of both the graded and ungraded districts of the county has been computed at 8.7 months, though some schools were conducted for only seven months out of the year, while others were maintained in session for as many as ten months. According to the above report of the State Commissioner of Public Instruction, reading was the most commonly taught branch of study, being offered in the curriculum of all the school districts of the county, while geometry was taught in but eleven districts. United States history was taught in 194 districts, physiology in 191, geography in 189, arithmetic in 188, grammar in 187, civil government in 164, penmanship in 155, orthography in 125, algebra in fifty-one, general history in thirty-eight, botany in seventeen and physics in only twelve of the districts. Only two of the 196 school districts supplied free text-books, 187 were furnished with school dictionaries, 186 had school maps, 183 contained globes, 170 offered a prescribed course of study, and 165 districts contained school buildings which were properly heated and ventilated. The popular, affable and highly esteemed M. W. Hensel, of Blissfield, is the present incumbent of the school comhiissionership of Lenawee county, having jurisdiction over all of 'the public schools of the county. With the exception of those in the cities of Adrian and Hud- son, and to him we are indebted for much of the information concerning the present status of the county's public school system. At the present time there are five parochial schools in, or in the immediate vicinity of, the city of Adrian, the largest and most prominent of which is "St. Joseph's Academy," situated about one-half of a mile northeast of the Maple City. St. Joseph's Academy, conducted by the sisters of St. Dominic, is a flourishing educational institution for girls, possessing the most ample facilities for promoting the mental as well as the physical qualities of the pupils.' Beautifully located on an eminence that commands a view of the surrounding country, it enjoys not only a picturesque but a healthful location. The air in the vicinity is always fresh and invigorating, the academy being surrounded by a fertile farm of sixty acres, which affords not only ample recreation grounds, but also furnishes all the products of a well-kept farm. The building was erected 'in 1886 and was originally known as St. Joseph's Hospital, and at the request of Father Casimir. then stationed at St. Joseph's parish, the sisters came from few York city to open a hospital, first taking charge of a small frame building, a few rods east of the present structure. In r886, the middle section of the present edifice was erected, whereupon the sisters and patients, who at that time numbered but few, took up their abode there. From the very first the resources of the hospital were very limited, most of the patients received were taken in for charity, the small maintenance fund-which originally consisted of only a few hundred dollars-was soon exhausted, and the institution no longer proved self-supporting. Happily, at this juncture, Rev. Mother Camilla arrived from New York city to take charge of the struggling enterprise, and her keen foresight detected the advantages the locality offered for a boarding school, and thus conceived the idea of transforming the institution into an educational one, which plan was realized in 11898. With the hearty co-operation of Dr. O'Rielly, then in charge of St. Mary's parish, fifteen pupils were secured for the first year, and so satisfactory were the results achieved during that period that the second and the following years each marked an increased attendance, until today the enrollment 'approximates 300 pupils. The gradual increase in the patronage necessitated the occupancy of a more adequate and commodious building, with the result that four additions have from time to time been added to the original structure. The last named is of brick, ornamented in carved stone work. Although the exterior presents an appearance imposing, dignified, and pleasing to the eye, the interior surpasses the exterior in this regard. On the first floor are located the chapel, lobby, parlors, dining rooms, library, infirmary, office, two class rooms, a studio, a number of music rooms, and the auditorium, the last named of which also serves as a study and recreation hail for the seniors. The second floor comprises five class rooms, a laboratory, study and recreation halls for the juniors, while the remainder of this floor and the entire third story is taken up with bright and cheery dormitories and private rooms. The new chapel is a commodious one, enjoying a seating capacity of 500, and 'on entering this spacious hall for the first time the aesthetic eye of the observer is ,at once absorbed in the beauty of the coloring and the sunlight effects in the decoration, which enjoys that dignity and unity of composition that at once conveys a sense of quiet and rest. The general scheme of decoration is of cream color in tone, and the architectural effects of the decorated Norway columns stand forth in bold relief; fifty-two life-size oil paintings ornament the walls; the stations of the cross are in statuary, all the figures of which are overlaid with rich old gold; the altars are of marble and are beautiful manifestations of the works of art, while above the center altar is a statuary grouping representing the presenting of the rosary to St. Dominic, and on either side are life-size statues of St. Agnes and Ross, while beneath the arch of the altar is a bass relief representing the last supper. The ceiling of this sanctuary is decorated with cherubs' heads in a cream back ground, and the floor is mosaic in beautiful design. Another apartment, in which the aesthetic is most pronounced, is the art studio, with its splendid display of oil paintings, water color, pencil drawing, and china painting. The city of Adrian takes just pride in this progressive institution, and through the advocacy of some of its influential citizens the academy has been supplied with - electric lighting and water from the city. Every precaution has been taken to prevent the outbreak of fire, a large quantity of hose is attached to the water mains on each floor, available for instantaneous use, and.. the numerous fire escapes, the spacious corridors, and the many exits, tend to alleviate the danger from conflagration. The large engine that supplies heat for the building has been stationed some distance away, under a separate covering, as a precaution against the wrecking of the building by an explosion of .the boiler. This institution is the provincial house and Novitiate of the Sisters of St. Dominic. The sisters of this order also conduct an academy at, St. Charles, Tll., and twenty-two parochial schools in the states of Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. St. Mary's school, conducted under the auspices of St. Mary's Catholic church, of Adrian, is situated in the rear of the church edifice on Erie street. This school, the oldest parochial educational institution in Lenawee county, was established during the sixth decade of the last century, and in it are taught those biblical branches generally offered in the curriculum of parochial schools of the Catholic denomination, and those studies common to the" primary and grammar grades of the public schools. Pupils successfully completing the scholastic work of this school are admitted to the high schools of the state without having to pass the rigid entrance examinations commonly presented by these institutions. St. Joseph's school, affiliated with the Catholic Church Society of St. Joseph's, Adrian, was erected during the 7o's of the last century, tinder the supervision and largely through the efforts of Rev. Father Casimer Rohwoski, who was then in charge of the parish. The school is an entirely adequate and commodious two-story: building, standing on Ormsby street, adjacent to the parish rectory, in the city of Adrian. There is a large enrollment of pupils. in this school, and the present incumbent of the pastorate-the Rev. F. W. Schaeper-takes a profound interest in the affairs of the institution,. personally supervising much of the scholastic work. St. John's parochial school, a spacious brick two-story building, situated at the corner of East Church and Center streets, opposite Monument park, in the city of Adrian, is affiliated with and conducted under the auspices of the congregation of St. John's Lutheran church. It is the oldest Lutheran parochial educational institution in the county, having been constructed during the 70's of the last century, at a cost of about $8,ooo. At the present time two men teachers-J. G. Denminger and August Droegemueller-instruct the ioo pupils enrolled therein, during five days of the week, and the school board now consists of two membersMartin Tornow and Henry Pries. St. Stephen's. school, also a Lutheran parochial school, is conducted and maintained by the congregation of St. Stephen's church, of Adrian. The first school-house was erected at the corner of Toledo and Elm streets, Adrian, in the Go's, and it remained there until 1883, when it was removed to the site of the present school, on the east side of Finch street, near Front street, and adjacent to St. Stephen's parsonage. The present school building was erected in 1899, largely through the efforts of Rev. Herman Heyn, the present incumbent of the ministry of St. Stephen's, and R. O. Patzwald, then principal of the school. Among those who have officiated as principal are the following: B. Meister (founder of Imnmanuel's Evangelical church, of Adrian), H. Oberschulte, 13. Ilahn, R. O. Patzwald, and H. Frieg, the present incumbent. ADRIAN COLLEGE Adrian College is among the oldest educational institutions in this state of many colleges, having been organized in I859 by the Rev. Asa Malian, D. D., LL. D., an educator of rare ability and of excellent reputation. It was established as a co-educational institution, being one of the first schools in this country to adopt this system, and at once this new institution received recognition for its high ideals and thoroughness of work. It may be said to be the successor of a school of a similar character, organized at Leoni, Mich., in 1852, by Dr. Malian, who served as president of the last named institution until the organization of the one at Adrian, and it was quite natural that several of the students of the college at Leoni should accompany this learned gentleman to his new location. He was also accompanied by Dr. Luther Lee, James McEldowney, Isaac McKeever, and Adam H. Lowrie, former members of the faculty at Leoni, who became professors and instructors of -the school at Adrian. This institution was at first conducted under the auspices of the WWesleyan Methodist church, but as this denomination found it financially difficult to maintain the school, it was later transferred to the Methodist Protestant church, which was at that time seeking to establish a college in the Middle West, and the general conference of this denomination has continued to operate it up to the present time. The college is located upon a site in the western portion of the city of Adrian, admirably adapted for the purposes of a school, the site having been donated by the Hon. L. G. Berry and Dr. Daniel K. Underwood. The campus embraces twenty acres of land, handsomely laid out, with grove and athletic field in the background, and there are five large and commodious buildings employed for college purposes. The erection of the first of these was commenced in 1858 and was finished the following year. This building, now known as South Hall, contains the ladies' dormitory, the apartments of the Dean of Women, the college parlors, the Young Woman's Christian Association room and the School of Fine Arts. The chapel building was constructed in i86o, but in 1896 was remodeled through the generosity of Jordan Downs, of North Lewisburg, Ohio, and named "Downs' Hall." Besides the auditorium, this building embraces the three literary society halls of the college, in which the Star, Lambda Phi, and the Theological societies conduct their weekly meetings. Tn the auditorium, during the year 1909, a $20,000 pipe organ was installed, largely through the efforts of Mrs. Minnie Kellog-Larned, a'graduate of the college and now a resident of Detroit, while associated with her in this work were several prominent women of Adrian, among whom should be mentioned Mrs. Bessie Prosser Watts, Mrs. Mary Virginia Silcott Hart, Mrs. Bessie Leach Priddy, Mrs. Elizabeth Gibbs Palmer, and Mrs. Bertha Page Robertson. North Hall was also erected in 186o, and was destroyed by fire in 1881. at which time it was re-built. This building contains several recitation rooms, the president's offices and the Young Men's Christian Association parlors, on the first floor, while the second and third floors are occupied as gentlemen's dormitory. The cabinet building was built in 1864, and for many years was known by this appellation, until it was remodeled, in 19o6, and christened Science Hall. At the present time this structure contains several recitation rooms, the biological laboratories, and the gentlemen's gymnasium. The latest building erected is known as Metcalf Hall, built by virtue of a life loan by David Metcalf and various smaller contributions from other citizens of Adrian. This structure contains the dining hall and culinary departments on the first floor, the hall of music on the second, and the women's gymnasium on the third, while the basement is taken up with the college steam heating plant. The greatest embarrassments which this little, but enterprising college has experienced have been of a financial character. For many years it was burdened by a troublesome debt; but during 1907 the debt was completely obliterated and quite a handsome addition made to the endowment fund. The following extract from the Alumni Bulletin, published under the auspices of the College Alumni Association, 550 strong, and edited by Mrs. Bessie Leach Priddy, the wife of the late postmaster, Frank E. Priddy, who for many years was prominently affiliated with the college, tells of the wiping out of this deficit and bespeaks the spirit and attitude of the Alumni association, of which Mrs. Priddy is an influential member "The matters of endowment and debt have ever presented some delicate problems in ratio and proportion, as 'is the case with all educational institutions of this kind, but as the half-century mark is approached, Dr. Anthony is telling the brightest story of all. In igo7, the citizens of Adrian added their efforts to those of the church, the alumni, and the friends of the college abroad, and have subscribed' the last $io,ooo necessary for the liquidation of the college debt, thus making it possible to add the recently promised Carnegie fund to an unencumbered endowment, and this has created new enthusiasm and hope to all those who now work unceasingly for the raising of that endowment to an adequate amount." The citizens of Adrian have a justifiable pride in the welfare of the college, and no more substantial evidence of their interest has been manifested in recent years than was displayed in rgo7, when, in response to an appeal by the President of the college, the Business Men's Association co-operated in a canvass,. which resulted in subscriptions to the debt fund, which was then being raised to something over $r i,ooo." "Adrian College does not seek to be a large institution of learning. Its board of trustees insist on maintaining it as one of the small colleges of the country, recognizing the fact that the small college has_ manifest advantages over the larger schools. These advantages contribute especially to the realization of excellency in educational and moral character. The school during the last five -years has been enjoying unprecedented prosperity. The attendance is larger than in many years before, and there is an enthusiasm in the work of the school which has perhaps never before been equalled, surely not surpassed. This college has always insisted upon offering great educational opportunities at a minimum cost. The purpose .of the management is to make possible superior educational opportunities to the young man and woman of limited means, as well as to those who, financially, are more fortunate. The class of students are for the most part from the better homes of the middle classes. It has been seen that the greater institutions of learning, in increasing the opportunities for work, have necessarily diminished the ability to exact work. It is conceded that the business of a college is to develop noble men and women, and experience has proved that the personal influence of the self-sacrificing, quiet, studious lives, possible to the smaller institutions, has fostered most wonderfully and will continue to foster such people. James Lane Allen, in the `Reign of Law,' speaks of the small denominational college as `pelican like,' draw ing the blood from its own breast for the nourishment of its young. This must ever be so, and never, until this truth is realized and met, can the college help but be impoverished in direct proportion as it enriches. Each student pays in but a fraction of the expense incurred by the college in educating him. If the college makes him capable of wresting a success from life, then let him remember that for that capability she incurred a debt in dol- lars and cents, and let him hold himself in honor bound to cancel that obligation. If his heart is full of the right kind of gratitude, he will also swell the measure and endeavor to repay the obligation of the unsuccessful brother." The foregoing paragraph is from the pen of the present prominent and highly esteemed incumbent of the college presidency, the Rev. Benjamin AV. Anthony, D. D., a sketch of whose career appears in the biographical volume of this work. During the last two or three years, the Department of Natural Science has been strengthened, and a Department of Fine Arts and Commerce added to the college curriculum. The courses of study offered in the last named department should prove of everlasting benefit to those young men and women of this vicinity who contemplate entering the employ of commercial enterprises upon the completion of their college course, for they will be enabled to enter the business world with a slight conception of the fundamental principles which underly the great world of commerce. Repairs amounting to more than $IO,ooo have also recently been made upon the buildings and campus, until at the present time this educational plant, which seeks to produce large mental calibre and durable and substantial moral fibre, is in better condition than ever before in its history. 'Among those who. are today prominenly associated with the institution, outside of the faculty, may be mentioned Capt. J. H. Fee, Judge R. A. Watts, W. N. Swift, president of the board of trustees; C. L. Palmer, secretary of the same board; B. E. Tobias, cashier of the Adrian State Savings Bank; Ex-Congressman Henry C. Smith, John A. Bird, attorney-general of the state of Michigan; Myron Hoisington, of the Bond Post company; R. G. Swift, proprietor of Swift's Book Store;-I. W. Swift, the grocer; J. W. Sampson, J. A. Bird's law partner; and many others. One of the most prominent and practical of Adrian's educational instiutions is Brown's Business College, which was founded by L. S. Brown, in 1884, and has been a growing success from that time to the present day. The new building, conspicuously located at the corner of College avenue and McKenzie street, is large and commodious and of imposing appearance, and will easily accommodate over 400 students, with all of the comforts, conveniences, and equipment desirable in such institutions. The curriculum of this school is divided into two courses, the business and the stenographic courses. The first named includes double and single entry book-keeping, business arithmetic, rapid business writing, business correspondence, spelling, English grammar, commercial law, banking, commission, corporation, and factory bookkeeping, while the course in stenography embraces shorthand (Graham's system), typewriting (by touch method), rapid dictation, legal reporting, manifolding, spelling, business correspondence, advertisement writing, and English grammar. Instruction in both of these courses is most thorough and complete, and numerous, graduates from this enterprising institution adorn the paths of commercial life in Lenawee county and vicinity.

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History of Lenawee County
published by The Western Historical Society in 1909.

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