History of Lenawee County, Michigan - Chapter 34, The Press / Newspapers

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THE PRESS / NEWSPAPERS. No community in these days can be said to -have reached the progressive stage until that infallible index to prosperous conditions-a newspaper-makes its periodical visits to an intelligent constituency. But it was not always thus. Seventy-five years ago, "journalists" were not as plentiful as they are today, and the appetite for printed news was not sufficiently keen to cause one to endure martyrdom in attempting to "fill a long-felt want." So, at the time of its organization, Lenawee County could not boast of a newspaper within her confines, and the County had been established for nearly a decade before a home-grown article of that kind made its appearance. This, of course, besides the inconvenience to its citizens individually, tended, in a considerable degree, to retard the progress of the County generally. Adrian, at the beginning of the year 1834, was a straggling village of some 100 inhabitants, and it can hardly be truthfully said that there was at that time "a long-felt want" for a newspaper in that place, but the pioneer journalist is never very far behind the pioneer farmer and artisan, and, besides, the necessity for a printing press and the publication of a paper, to be located at the future County seat, finally became so urgent as to induce the establishment of The Adrian Gazette and Lenawee County Republican, the first issue being dated Oct. 22, 1834. The publisher was R. W. Ingalls, who brought to the little village from New York a small printing outfit. Mr. Ingalls was an able and honorable newspaper man, but his patronage was small, and paper supplies difficult to procure. Had it not been for the legal printing, which was abundant, he could not have sustained his first venture -into the western newspaper field. To please all parties, Mr. Ingalls declared his paper neutral, but soon discarded that false pretense, changed the name to The Adrian Watchtower, and advocated Jacksonian Democracy, with marked ability and success. His first office was located near the Maumee Street Bridge. In 1849, fifteen years after he founded the first paper in Lenawee County, Mr. Ingalls was appointed state printer tinder Governor Ransom's administration, and held that position four years. That office and his newspaper combined earned him a competence, and he erected the Watchtower building, a three-story block on East Maumee Street, which was the home of that paper and its successor, the Adrian. Times, until 1883, when the plant was moved to the Armory block, on South Winter Street, which had just been completed by J. C. Rowley. Mr. Ingalls was proprietor and publisher of the Watchtower, first as a weekly and later a daily and weekly, until 1863, when, after thirty years of successful newspaper work in Adrian, he sold the whole property to Larwill, Applegate & Champion. Messrs. Larwill and Applegate had learned the printing business in Brooklyn, N. Y., had been employed in Rome, N. Y., and came to Adrian, in October, 1863, fully competent to carry on the venture they undertook. Dr. J. I-f. Champion had been connected with the Watchtower as an editorial writer for some years. Mr. Larwill sold his interest, in 1865, with the intention of going to St. Louis, Mo., but was finally persuaded by Mr. Applegate to remain and take charge of the office, which he did. On Saturday, Sept. 9, 1865, the entire plant of the Watchtower was sold to Gen. William Humphrey, and on the following Monday', the paper appeared as the Adrian Daily and Weekly Times, completely changed in politics and public policy, Mr. Applegate still remaining in charge. In the fall of 1866, General Humphrey was elected auditor-general of Michigan, and in 1467 sold his interest in the Times to Dr. Ragan and Prof. Lowrie, then of the Adrian College faculty, and the firm became Ragan, Lowrie Applegate. In the fall of 1867, Capt. J. H. Fee purchased the interest of Dr. Ragan, when the firm name was changed to Lowrie, Applegate & Fee. In 1868, Professor Lowrie retired, and for nineteen years the paper was published by Applegate & Fee. In 1885, Mr. Applegate became the sole proprietor, and so continued until his death, Dec. 27, 1891, whereupon his widow, Mrs. Harriet M. Applegate, at once assumed the personal management of the paper and carried it on successfully until her tragic death in a railway accident, at Flint, Mich., June 14, 1901. In 1843, S. P. and T. D. Jermain established the Michigan Expositor as a rival to the Watchtower, and at once it became the recognized organ of the Whig Party. Jermain Brothers were bright ambitious, enterprising men, and they soon firmly established a tri-weekly edition, which was a success from the start. In 1854, upon the organization of the Republican Party, "under the oaks" at Jackson, the, Expositor at once fell in line and became the leading Republican paper in southern Michigan, the late Francis R. Stebbins being the political editor. In 1852, Jermain Brothers built what was then regarded as a huge four-story office block on the north side of East Maumee Street, facing the Watchtower building, and the editors hurled defiance at one another as occasion demanded. The building was constructed with special reference to accommodating the principal offices of the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana railroad. Several rooms were occupied as railroad offices, and the remainder of the building was devoted to the printing business. The Messrs. Jermain had been successful in securing the major part of the printing required by this great thoroughfare, and the office was well equipped with type and machinery for doing the work satisfactorily. In 1857, the railroad moved its headquarters from Adrian to Toledo, and most of the printing followed. That year the Jermain Brothers dissolved their partnership, T. D. withdrawing, and in company with Horace Brightman, then also a citizen of Adrian, purchased the Milwaukee (Wis.) Sentinel, which they placed upon a firm financial footing and published continuously until 1870. In 1859, S. P. Jermain took in as partners in the publication of the Expositor Marcus Knight and Richard I. Bonner. The Tri-Weekly Expositor, together with the weekly were successful publications. In .1860, public policy as well as Party exigency demanded a daily publication. Early in the year of the famous Lincoln campaign, Henry E. Baker, of Detroit, an experienced and able newspaper man, was induced to come to Adrian and take a quarter interest in the office. He at once became the editor and political director, and during the years of the Civil war his talent and energy were devoted to the Federal cause. In 1868 the Expositor building and plant were purchased by the late Dr. John Kost, who carried on the business for about one year, when the Expositor was absorbed by The Adrian Times, which publication thereafter became known as The Times and Expositor. In September, 1901, Thomas A. Dailey came to Adrian from Washington, D. C., where he was in the employ of the government, and began to organize a local corporation for the purpose of securing sufficient capital to purchase the Times property. With him came DeWitt Wessell, from Jackson, Mich., a practical printer and newspaper man, who had been employed in The Jackson Citizen office twenty-four years. Together, they took $9,000 of the stock, and the remaining $7,000 was subscribed by Adrian people. The new company was incorporated, Oct. 8, 1goi, with $16.00o cash capital, which was immediately paid for The Times plant, good will, and business, and on October 12 the new owners took possession, with Mr. Dailey as editor and manager, and Mr. Wessell as city editor. A marked increase in the business of The Times Printing Company necessitated enlarged facilities. The old Weekly Times, which had been issued in two parts for several years, was changed to a tri-weekly, an eight-column folio, which together with the Daily Times was, at the beginning of 1904, enlarged to eight pages of six columns each. The building on South Winter Street, which had served as its home for more than twenty years, became so crowded that a new location was rendered inoperative, and on Dec. 28, 1903, the Times Printing Company purchased the Abel Whitney homestead, No. 4o East Maumee Street, a beautiful lot, measuring five by fifteen rods, and on the. west half of this site The Times is now located in its own home, a building measuring 33x130 feet, and the printing plant is one of the finest in a city of this size in Michigan. It is equipped with every modern appliance for the rapid, economical and systematic production of newspapers and printed matter. The building is heated by steam and lighted by both gas and electricity, and the plant is a model one in every respect.

We have now traced the history of the first newspaper published in Lenawee County, through the days of its prosperity and adversity, its changes of names and ownership, etc., and it now will be well to speak personally of some of the men who have presided over its destinies and been connected with its publication -in the past. The Adrian Times stands today as the lineal descendant of the Adrian Gazette and Lenawee County Republican, and it also represents all that is mortal of the old Weekly Expositor.

Rensselaer W. Ingalls was born in Middlefield, Otsego county-, New York, in 18o8, receiving a common-school education, and graduating in the printing office of H. and E. Phinney, book publishers, in the village of Cooperstown, N. Y. In April, 1830, he engaged his services to William Hewes, publisher of a newspaper in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, remaining with him until the fall of 1831, when he purchased an interest in the St. Lawrence Republican, printed at Canton, and subsequently selling out to the I-Ion. Preston Ding, of Ogdensburg, who moved the establishment to that place, where the publication of the paper was continued under its original name. In the spring of 1832, Mr. Ingalls engaged with William Williams, book publisher, at Utica, N. Y., and in the fall of 1834 he moved to Adrian, where lie commenced the publication of the first paper in Lenawee County, as before stated. After retiring from the editorial sanctum, in 1863, he retired to his Dairy Brook Lodge farm, in the township of Dover, and there he remained until 1874, when he returned to the city of Adrian and engaged in the crockery trade.

Sylvanus Pierson Jermain and Tompkins Delevan jet-main, brothers, in the spring of 1840, although neither of them had as yet reached the required voting age, founded the Jonesville Expositor at Jonesville, Hillsdale County. It was a weekly newspaper, Whig in politics, and strongly aided in the successful campaign of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." In September, 1843, through the solicitation of prominent citizens of Adrian, owing to the recent demise of the Michigan Whig, hereinafter mentioned, they removed their office and material to Adrian, and called their paper the Michigan Expositor. The printing material was taken to Hillsdale by teams and from there by "horse cars" over the Michigan Southern railroad, as far as Hudson, and from there by "steam cars" to Adrian. In 184.7, they brought the second steam-power press to Michigan, the first one having been operated in the Daily Free Press office in Detroit, by Bag- & Harmon, then state printers. On June 17, 1848, Jermain Brother issued from their office the first number of a very neat semi-monthly quarto publication, entitled The Pledge of Honor, it being the organ of the order of the Sons of Temperance, of Michigan. It was edited by the Rev. E. McClure, then the talented pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church of Adrian. The year following, The Pledge of Honor was changed into a folio weekly paper and called The Dollar Weekly, which paper had a wide circulation throughout the state as a family temperance publication. Francis R. Stebbins was born at Williamstown, Vt., Oct. 26, iSi8. At the age of sixteen years, he commenced to learn the cabinet-maker's trade, with his brother-in-law, Lyman Briggs, at Montpelier, Vt., earning money enough to pay the tuition for several terms at the academy at Montpelier. In 1837 he came to Lenawee County and joined his brother, C. B. Stebbins, who was carrying on the cabinet business at Palmyra. There he remained for about two years, and then went to Buffalo, N. Y., in the employ of Cooley & Gallagan, cabinet makers. While at Palmyra, he wrote articles for the Michigan Whig. He also contributed to the Michigan Observer, of Detroit, and to the Emancipator, of New York._ While in Buffalo, he wrote for The Buffalonian, The Commercial Advertiser, The Republican, and several other papers, and was finally given charge of the editorial work of the Morning Tattler, a society paper, with the understanding, however, that it should not interfere with his work as a cabinet-maker. Alternating between Vermont, Buffalo and Palmyra, for a few years, he finally came to Adrian, in the fall of 1841, and from that time until his death, which occurred Sept. 29, 1892, resided in that city. With the exception of a few months spent in the study of law, in the office of Baker, Harris & Millard, Mr. Stebbins, during the entire period of his residence in Adrian (comprising more than half a century of time), was continuously engaged in the business of which he had made himself master in his youth. Commencing in a small way and working at the bench himself, he gradually built up one of the largest, best, and most successful factories and furniture stores in southern Michigan. A part of the time he was in partnership with his brother, C. B. Stebbins. While Mr. Stebbins was thoroughly master of his trade, yet his strong literary bias and the urgent solicitations of the proprietors induced him to assume the editorship of the Weekly and Tri-Weekly Expositor, of Adrian, which position he held from 1850 to 1860, and so long as he lived he continued to write for the press. For nearly thirty years prior to his decease, he spent a portion of each year in travel, and while on these excursions wrote many interesting and instructive letters, covering the country from Lake Superior and the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, to the Gulf of Mexico. He was a zealous and active member of the Pioneer Society of the County of Lenawee, and also of the State Pioneer Society, contributing during his membership interesting and valuable articles to each society. He served as alderman of his ward in Adrian, also as member of the public school board, where, either as president or chairman of the building committee, he had the leading charge of the erection of the Central school building, the main features of the plan of which were furnished by him and adopted by the board. He served as a member of the old volunteer fire department of the city, and had much to do with the erection of its buildings, was a member of the committee having charge of the erection of the soldiers monument, furnishing the design which was adopted for the base, and in short, he was directly or indirectly identified with almost every movement that was made, calculated to advance the best interests of the city, during his long residence therein. In politics, Mr. Stebbins was a Whig, and cast his first vote in Buffalo for William Henry Harrison for president, and subsequently he became identified with the Republican Party. He was an active politician, but never sought public office. He was a religious man in the best and broadest sense of the word, was liberal and catholic in his views, and a member of the Presbyterian Church.

Although Mr. Ingalls and his Watchtower were the first in the field of journalism at Adrian, they were not destined long to have a monopoly of the business. In October, 1837, a few months after Michigan had been admitted into the Union as a state, and Adrian had won the fight by being designated as the future seat of justice in Lenawee County, The Constitutionalist appeared on the, scene as the representative of the Whig Party and the exponent of its principles. Its presiding genius during a good portion if not all of the period of its existence was Benjamin Workman, an Irishman, who had become infatuated with the beauty of Sand lake, and in 1835 had located land upon its shores, in Cambridge township. He was rather above the medium height, broad-shouldered, deep-chested, with a marked intellectual cast of countenance -a man whom after meeting in the Street, one would involuntarily turn to look at a man who, when he spoke, riveted attention. He was usually clothed in sheep's gray, well-worn and patched, yet one could not but feel, while in his presence, as if in the presence of a king. Although he had the advantage of the best culture of his native land, and was a thorough classical and scientific scholar, yet he found himself at fault in trying to make a living upon a new farm in the woods. Gradually, his clothing became more and more seedy, and his purse lighter and lighter, and a casual visitor at the lake would not have been likely to envy either him or his possessions. There he lived until the parties interested in the old Constitutionalist, the first Whig paper ever published 'in this County, commenced looking about for an editor. Mr. Workman was selected and he took charge of the editorial department of the paper, boarding, while here, with the late David Bixby, some two miles north of the city. But little is remembered regarding his success as an editor, but it is said that he was considered too honest for the position. He was a man of strong convictions, and men with convictions are not always successful as editors of Party papers. He afterward taught school at Tecumseh and at Springville, and still later, he removed to Canada, studied medicine, engaged in business and became wealthy, being for many years either at the head of or connected with the insane asylum at Toronto. In Canada, where he became known extensively, he was held in the highest esteem, and all over the province great deference was paid him as a man of culture and learning. But The Constitutionalist, through which Mr. Workman expressed his thoughts to the public, was short-lived. In fact, it did not live to celebrate its first anniversary. On July 18, 1838, 'the first number of the Michigan Whig appeared, as a continuation of The Constitutionalist, and in the date line appears The words, "Volume 1, Number 39," which indicates that only thirty-eight numbers were issued under its first name and management. The publishers of the Whig, in the "prospectus," which it was the custom to publish in those days, begins with this announcement: "The press upon which the Constitutionalist has heretofore been printed having changed hands, the proprietors propose publishing a paper to be called the Michigan Whig, and tinder these circumstances, our patrons may very justly expect of us, as the conductors of a public journal, to declare in some measure the course we intend to pursue, and the principles which we intend to advocate." Then, after fully explaining the views of the publishers upon questions agitating the public mind, the "prospectus" concludes as follows: "The Whig will be forwarded to the subscribers to the Constitutionalist, and we will rely on the friends of our common cause to use their best efforts to increase our subscription list. On our part no effort will be spared to make the Whig a useful and interesting journal to our patrons." Those who believed in the principles of the Whig Party certainly had no cause to complain of the lukewarmness of the Whig during its existence. The publishers were II. J. Tyler & Company, with Mr. Tyler as editor and it continued to make its weekly visits until 1842. Then, Mr. Tyler having died, its publication was stopped, and in the following year, 1843, Jermain Brothers removed their plant from Jonesville to Adrian and established the Expositor, as related on a previous page.

Two other periodicals were published in Adrian in antebellum days, one called the Christian Advocate and the other The Farmer and Mechanic. The former was edited by the Rev. J. V. Watson, a very able gentleman and a minister of the Methodist Episcopal denomination. It was published in quarto form, and attained a wide circulation, wielding a strong influence in the cause of Christianity in general and the Methodist church in particular. The Reverend Watson first started a weekly publication, and later, in January, 1850, he launched the Family Favorite, a monthly periodical, which lived one year, and in January, 1851, it was succeeded by the Christian Advocate. The other publication, as its name would indicate, was issued in the, interests of the farmer and mechanic, and it was highly valued in those two lines of endeavor. It was edited by a Mr. Davis, who continued its publication until 1849, when he mysteriously disappeared at Toledo, Ohio, and was never afterward heard of. His silk hat, which lie always wore, was found on the bank of the river, but the most diligent search and inquiry failed to unfold the mystery of his disappearance. The paper, which he had published more or less successfully for a number of years, was allowed to discontinue for the want of a presiding genius, and it joined the ranks of the deceased in the journalistic graveyard. In January, 1867, Richard I. Bonner, who had learned the art of printing in the old Expositor office' and was later an associate publisher of that paper, established the Adrian Journal, a Democratic paper, of which he was the editor for several years. He then disposed of the property to Japheth Cross, who continued the publication of the paper until the early 8o's, when it ceased to exist.

Japheth Cross, who published the last-named periodical for a number of years, was one of the pioneers of Lenawee County, but did not enter the newspaper business until late in life. He was born in the town of Rutland, Jefferson County, New York, July 7, 1810. He lived with his parents until he was twenty-one years of age, working on a farm at Antwerp, N. Y. At the age of twelve years he commenced repairing watches, and at the age of fifteen he began the study of medicine, which he continued about one year; but becoming disgusted with the profession he gave tip the study and resumed farming and watch and clock repairing. At the age of twenty-one he went to Canada, where he remained about three years, engaged in trapping, hunting, purchasing furs, and working at his trade. In the spring of 1834, he removed to Cleveland, Ohio, where he purchased a farm, eight miles from the city, on the Columbus pike, and built a house for his father and mother. He owned this farm about eighteen months and then sold it and removed to Detroit, from whence he went to Perrysburg, Ohio, and thence came to Adrian, establishing his permanent residence here in 1836. He first opened a stock, of jewelry and other goods over the furniture store of R. & G. W. Merrick, in the same store with Dr. P. J. Spalding. The same spring lie purchased a lot on North Main Street, where he erected a two-story brick house and moved into. it that year, this being perhaps the first brick dwelling erected in Lenawee County. In the same year, he located the land where the village of Osseo now stands, in Hillsdale County, and he also entered a large farm in Seneca Township, this County. In the fall of 1837, he traded his brick house, on Main Street, with Isaac French, for an undivided one-half interest in the American hotel, which stood on the corner of Winter and Front Streets, where the County jail is now located. That hotel he conducted for several years, also acting as agent for the stage lines which ran into Adrian from all directions. At a later date he purchased his partner's interest in the hotel, and, beginning in 1836, lie was an active business man in Adrian. In the early 70's he purchased the Adrian Weekly Journal, as before stated, and was the publisher and proprietor of that paper until it ceased publication, about 188o. In 1873 a new paper entered the journalistic field of Lenawee County. William A. Whitney, having retired from the position of postmaster at Adrian, which he had held for a term of four years, decided that there was a field for a journal, such as he had in mind. Engaging the services of Richard I. Bonner, a newspaper man of much .experience, together they went to Philadelphia and New York, in which cities they purchased a very complete printing outfit. Mr. Bonner selected all the material, which cost about $8,000, superintended the arrangement of the office, set up the presses, started them, and put them all in full and perfect operation. He wrote the salutatory of the paper, and was the superintendent and one of its editors for over five years. The name of this paper was the Adrian Press, the first number of which appeared in May, 1873, and Mr. Whitney continued its publication, a good portion of the time as a daily and weekly, until April 5, 1878, a period of nearly five years, when he sold out to the late Willard Stearns. Mr. Stearns immediately took charge of the Press and conducted one of the most vigorous Democratic papers in the state up to the time that he disposed of the property. On April 1, 19o5, he sold the paper and plant to Edward S. White, who conducted it only six months and then in turn sold it to George G. Grimes, who presided as the editor of the journal until his death, which occurred Nov. 2, 1908. Soon thereafter the publication of the Press was discontinued and the material was sold to parties in Hillsdale. In the early spring of 1881, Richard I. Bonner commenced the publication of the Evening Record, the first two-cent daily paper in Adrian. This enterprise was successful, but owing to ill-health Mr. Bonner sold the plant, in the fall of 1884, to S. W. Beakes. That gentleman continued the publication of the paper for several months and then sold it to parties from Rochester, N. Y., and they after a few weeks were disappointed in the outlook, and stopped publication. The city of Adrian is now represented by two excellent daily newspapers, one of which has already been mentioned, while the other is The Telegram, which ranks among the most successful newspaper ventures in Michigan. From a-very small beginning, the paper attained great prestige under the guidance of David W. Grandon, and the present publisher, Stuart Perry, is maintaining its high standing.

David W. Grandon was born at Graysville, Greene County, Pennsylvania, Jan. 1g, 1859. He attended district school until fourteen years of age, when he was apprenticed to the printing trade in the Republican office at Waynesburg, the County seat of Greene County. -Following his apprenticesliip, he held various positions in numerous offices, working at Cameron, Philippi, and Cairo, in West Virginia, and at McArthur and other points in Ohio. Then he returned to Greene County and taught school one winter, after which he took entire charge of the mechanical department of the Democrat, at Weston, W. Va. He also worked on the Republican at the same place. He then went to Kentucky, where he was employed for some time at Lexington, Versailles, and Williamston. Returning to Weston, W. Va., in 1885, in company with the Hon. Andrew Edminston, he started the Weston World, and in a few months had made it the leading local paper of the County. Considering the field too small, after conducting the paper for about two years, he sold the business and went to Charleston, W. Va., where he accepted the foremanship of the Charleston Daily Star, and in order to keep fairly busy, started Grandon's Graphic, devoted to the interests of temperance in West Virginia. This was continued about two years. Then, Mr. Grandon came to Michigan on the invitation of the Prohibitionists of Lenawee County, arriving at Adrian, May 30, 1888. Next day, in company with Hon. G. P. Waring and M. P. Brown, the plant of the defunct Lance was purchased at Hillsdale. The first issue of the revived Lance was printed at Hillsdale and appeared June 9, 1888. The office was then moved to the third story of the Metcalf block in Adrian. Having but a small outfit of type, sufficient only to print four pages, five columns to the page, and no newspaper press, it was found impossible to secure the press work done in any Adrian printing office. The forms were taken to Tecumseh and printed in the Herald office in that town. This was continued about three months, when a Prouty hand-power press was installed and the paper printed at home. In 1880, the Center, which was the Prohibition Party paper for the state of Michigan, was consolidated with the Lance and the name of the Michigan Messenger adopted for the new enterprise. Two editions were issued, one for the state with a circulation running from 5,000 to 7,000 each week, and the second devoted to the local interests of Adrian and Lenawee County. The local edition of the Michigan Messenger proved so popular with the home people that it soon became necessary to make it a semiweekly, and it was the first semi-weekly to be published in the County of Lenawee. The paper continued to grow and prosper and soon became a recognized factor in the newspaper field. Feeling that the field in Adrian was large enough for two daily papers, on Dec. 3, 1892, M. W. Redfield, an old newspaper man, and Elmer E. Putman put out the first issue of the Adrian Daily Telegram. The Messenger office had the contract for printing the paper, and it was issued in this way for several months. Early in 1893, the state edition of the Michigan Messenger was sold to Dr. Henry A. Reynolds, of Pontiac. The business was moved away and the name changed to Living Issues. The Daily Telegram had won many friends in Adrian and the management not being in a position to continue it, Mr. Grandon and B. J. Kingston, of Jackson, purchased the outfit on June 5, 1893, and succeeded in bringing the little paper rapidly to the front, the partnership continuing until the spring of 1898, when Mr. Grandon became sole owner. The Semi-Weekly Michigan Messenger was issued during this period by Mr. Grandon, and was a winning paper with the County people. In August, 1898, a Thorne typesetting machine, the first one in Lenawee County, was installed in the office, and on Nov. 4, 1899, the Semi-Weekly Michigan Messenger was changed into the TriWeekly Telegram. The business continued to grow until it became necessary to add a more, modern typesetting machine, and a Mergenthaler Linotype, a line-casting machine, with but one operator, was installed in September, 1902. This was the first linotype ever brought to Lenawee County, and it proved as much superior to the Thorne typesetting machine as that machine was to hand composition. On Jan 5, 1903, the Tri-Weekly Telegram was merged into the Adrian Daily Telegram, which has since been supplied to 'the people of the villages and rural routes in lieu of the weekly, semi-weekly, and tri-weekly. The daily paper proved so gratifying to the patrons and the circulation increased until the capacity of the cylinder press was passed and it became necessary to install a faster one. So, on June 10, 1903, The Telegram was printed on a new Duplex Perfecting press, printing, from a roll and capable of printing both sides, cutting, pasting, and folding as high as 6,000 perfect four, six, or eight page papers per hour, as the occasion demanded. As The Telegram had been the first to install nearly all new features in the printing business in Lenawee County, it was fitting that it should be the first to establish an up-to-date press of this character. In October, 1907, the plant and business were sold by Mr. Grandon, who later engaged in a similar enterprise in Hillsdale, and the Telegram is continuing its phenomenally successful career under the management of Stuart Perry. In November, 1902, the Michigan Patron was launched upon the journalistic sea at Adrian by Commings & Balch, its purpose being to serve as the organ of the Grange of Michigan. At the end of about one year Mr. Commings retired from the business, and Mr. Balch continued at the helm for about one year longer. Not being very successful, however, he turned the paper over to the Patron Publishing Company, a corporation that had backed him in the enterprise., This company was about to give up the business and suspend publication, when James W. Helme, one of the members of the company, said that if those interested would turn the business over to him he would make the paper a live issue or else would bury it at his own expense. This was in January, 1905, and his offer being accepted Mr. Helme took charge of the business. In four years from that date he had doubled the size of the paper, had increased the subscription list from a paltry 2,500 to 12,500, and today it is the most widely quoted periodical in the state of Michigan. It reaches every County in the state, goes to over 800 post offices, and arrangements are now being made to launch it as the organ of the National Grange of the United States. Every previous attempt to publish a Grange paper in Michigan had proven a failure, even with the financial assistance of the State Grange, but the Patron has proven a success without any help from that source whatever. It is managed by Mr. Helme, who superintends every department of the editorial work, with the exception of the Ladies' Department, which is ably edited by Mrs. Helme. Undoubtedly Tecumseh is entitled to the distinction of being the home of the second newspaper published in Lenawee County. Late in 1834, or early in 1835, Beriah Brown started a paper at that place under the name of Tecumseh Democrat, and it was a strong advocate of Tecumseh in the struggle with Adrian over the location of the County seat. The enterprise originated with the citizens of Tecumseh, who circulated a subscription and purchased a press and font of type. 'Twas a Ramage press, similar to the one first used by our venerable countryman, Benjamin Franklin. The ink was laid on the type by old-fashioned "hand balls," and the platen was brought down to make the impression by a lever worked by hand. The principal object which induced the purchase of this press was to print a weekly paper and for general advertising. Beriah Brown, who first assumed its management, was a young printer from western New York. Not long after the paper went into circulation the Hon. Peter Morey, a young lawyer from Madison County, New York, settled in Tecumseh, and became financially interested in the publication. When he became attorney-general of the state, in 1837, John A. Brown, a brother of Beriah Brown, purchased the interest of Mr. Morey, and the paper was thenceforth published by the Brown brothers until i84o, when they sold out to Daniel S. Curtis, a young man from Genesee, N. Y., and a practical printer. Mr. Curtis published the Democrat until about 1844, when he sold it to Henry S. Hewitt, and that gentleman very soon afterward sold it to James L. and David Smith, who worked the press some three or four years, having changed the name of it to The Village Record. The press and type were then sold to some one who conveyed them to parts unknown. James L. Smith, who is thus mentioned as one of the early newspaper men of Lenawee County, was born in Kilconquhar, Scotland, May 11, 1813. He came to Tecumseh, in 1838, and later removed to Sanilac County, which he represented in the Michigan legislature in 1851. He followed various business pursuits and after the organization of the Republican Party was an adherent of that political faith. He removed to Toledo, in 1853, and in 1882 took up his residence in Minneapolis. On Oct. 1, 1850, James H. Perry, an Englishman by birth and a practical printer, issued a new paper tinder the name of The Tecumseh Herald. Several citizens of the village interested themselves in this matter, and B. L. Baxter, then in the fourth year of his legal practice and partnership with Perley Bills, undertook to furnish the editorial matter gratuitously, while several -of the leading citizens contributed funds for its support. But Mr. Perry, though a practical printer, did not succeed as a publisher and was soon in limbo, the press being more than once sold out on chattel mortgage during' the year. On Feb. 20, 1851, L. G. Sholes bought the concern and published the paper until Sept. 11, of that year, when it was purchased by W. H. Stout. That gentleman ran it just four weeks, when, Nov. 1, 1851, it was sold to William Richard, who continued its publication under the editorship of B. L. Baxter, who had, during all its changes and vicissitudes, continued his gratuitous control of its editorial columns from the time of its first issue by Mr. Perry. Mr. Richard sold, the paper to John Shepherd March 25, 1852, but had to take it back again for non-payment. He then sold it by contract to John Shepherd and George W. Benedict, the latter being a practical printer and an active and enterprising young man, and they continued to publish it to the end of the second year of its existence, Oct. 1, 1852. It was then purchased by William. Richard, B. L. Baxter and Charles DeMott, Baxter remaining as heretofore, its principal editor. Dr. DeMott soon tired of the enterprise and fell out of the concern at the end of its third year, Oct. 1, 1853. It was then published by Richard Baxter until Dec. 13, 1855, when Baxter went to Chicago to take a position on the Chicago Tribune, leaving Mr. Richard to his fate, and at a pecuniary loss of $1,500 that gentleman continued to publish the paper until the end of its eleventh year. He then rented the concern to Ralph T. Stocking, and Mr. Baxter, having returned to Tecumseh, again edited the paper gratuitously. For two years longer, the plant was leased to George S. and Charles K. Spafford, practical printers, and Mr. Baxter still continued his gratuitous relations to the periodical during all its frequent changes as to publishers. Mr. Richard then leased it for one year to Mr. Nimmocks, and one year to James A. Castle, and on Jan. 1, 1866, he sold it to C. M. Burlingame, a practical printer, who managed and published it for nearly eight years, when he sold it to S. C. Stacy, Nov. 1, 1874. This gentleman continued to publish the Herald with conspicuous success until his death, which occurred in 19oo, after which the paper was conducted by members of his family, a younger brother, George N. Stacy, finally coining into full possession. Since the death of the latter, in 1908, Mrs. Stacy has conducted the paper in an able, efficient, and acceptable manner. William Richard, who was connected with the publication of the Tecumseh Herald for a number of years, was born at Fleming Hall, County Antrim, Ireland, and came with his parents to America, in 1829. They settled in Genesco, Livingston County, New York, and remained until 1833, when the family cane to Michigan. William stopped at Tecumseh, and with the exception of one year, when he resided in Adrian, spent the remainder of his life in that village. He had learned the cabinet-maker's trade in the state of New York, and in 1834, in company with I-I. A. Adams, he engaged in a rather extensive furniture manufactory, which was operated by water power and located at the upper dam, in Brownsville. After a few years, he and David Van Tine purchased Mr. Adams interest in the business, and enlarging it carried it on for about eighteen years, it being the only furniture factory in this region for several years. Mr. Richard built, or was instrumental in building, ten brick store buildings and a large number of dwelling houses in the village. He was well known throughout the County and had an honorable record. Scovel C. Stacy, under whose editorial management the Herald became highly successful, was born in Tecumseh village, Aug. 2, 1841, and continued a resident of his native place his entire life. His boyhood was spent in school and on his father's farm, and at the age of nineteen years he had completed a full course of study in the Tecumseh high school. In September, 1860, he entered the state university at Ann Arbor, took the regular classical course, and was graduated in June, 1864, prepared for the more serious business of life. Upon his return from college, he began the study of law in the office of his father, acting at the same time as clerk, until October, 1867. He then returned to his alma mater and took a six-months course in the law department of the university. He was admitted to practice in the courts of Michigan, May 29, 1868, and in the United States courts, March 25, 187o. He commenced his regular practice in partnership with his honored father, the firm being C. A. and S. C. Stacy, and continued until November, 1874. He had been considerably interested in newspaper work for some time, and now purchased the Tecumseh Herald, for a consideration of $1,200. In August, 1885, he purchased the plant of the Addison Courier, and in October, 1887, added the outfit of the Britton Eagle. He wielded a ready pen, was an enthusiastic lover of his profession, and was recognized by his brethren of the craft as one of the leading journalists of Southern Michigan. In September, 1866, Peter R. Adams, a lawyer of Tecumseh, in order to furnish employment and position for his son, Waller P. Adams,, bought a press and printing outfit and started in that place a weekly paper, styled The Raisin Valley Record. The publishers were P. R. Adams & Co. (P. W. Adams and George S. Spafford the company). They continued to publish the paper until the fall of 1867, when they sold the concern to Messrs. George S. and C. X. Spafford, practical printers, formerly engaged on the Tecumseh Herald. The new firm continued the publication about one year, but did not succeed, and the press and appliances reverted to Mr. Adams, who, in October, 1868, sold it to Messrs. Chapin & Page, practical printers, under whom the Record became a full-fledged Republican paper. Mr. Page afterward sold his interest in the paper to his partner, Charles T. Chapin, who continued the publication for several years, but finally removed with his press to Cadillac, Wexford County. In 1881 there was a paper being published in Clinton, called the Clinton News. It was published by C. W. Clough, and in July of that year he moved with his press and printing materials to Brooklyn, Mich. Charles F. Field purchased his list and the good will of the paper, and getting a new press and type continued to publish the Clinton News until in April, 1884, when he removed the entire plant to Tecumseh, changed the name of the paper to the Tecumseh News, and tinder that title the paper has been continued in Tecumseh ever since. It is a good village paper, full of local and other news, and Republican in politics. The first attempt at journalism in the township and village of Hudson was made by William H. Bolsby, July 9, 1853. The paper was called the Hudson Sentinel, and T. D. Montgomery was editor. About the beginning of the next year, Canniff & Montgomery became the proprietors of the Sentinel, and Andrew C. Mercer, editor. In November, Mr. Canniff appeared as editor and proprietor, Joseph G. Davenport, publisher, and in December, Davenport became editor and proprietor. The paper was soon afterward consolidated with the Michigan Republican, and was published for a short time at Adrian by one Hobart, proprietor. On Sept. 13, 1855, a new paper appeared at Hudson. It was called the Hudson Courier, and was published by a company, as follows: H. M. Boies, W. H. Johnson, Enos Canniff, Benjamin Turner, A. C. Mercer, L. G. Hall and Alonzo Palmer. A. C. Mercer was editor, but the paper was comparatively short lived.

Enos Canniff, who was connected with the first two newspaper ventures in the village of Hudson, and a pioneer of Hudson Township, was born in Knowlesville, Orleans County, New York, Feb. 11, 1822. He was eight years old at the time of his father's death, and he lived with an uncle a year and then with Alpheus Phelps, near Knowlesville, acquiring his education in the common schools, mostly during the winter seasons. In the fall of 1839 he came with his mother to Michigan, but subsequently returned to New York state, spending part of his time there and a part of the time in Michigan, until locating in Richfield, where he engaged in the manufacture of brooms two years. At the expiration of this time he took up his residence in Hudson, where he lived the remainder of his life. He was an Abolitionist from his earliest recollection, and was one of the founders of the Republican Party in this state. Early in 184, as before stated, he purchased the Sentinel, the first journal ever published in Hudson, and this he conducted until after the election of Governor Bingham, when he disposed of the paper. He officiated as supervisor of Hudson Township, was the first Street commissioner and the first marshal of the village, and in 1883 was appointed postal clerk from Granger, Wyo., to Huntington, Ore. He ran the first mail train passing over the route, and after a service of two years in this capacity was made deputy postmaster at Weiser, Id., a position he filled satisfactorily for some time and then returned to Hudson. On Aug. 15, 1857, still another paper appeared in Hudson, the Saturday Evening News, E. Wolverton, editor and proprietor. This paper was succeeded, March 26, 1858, by the Hudson Gazette, W. T. B. Schermerhorn, editor and proprietor. Under the management of Mr. Schermerhorn the Gazette became an able village paper. It was printed first as a neutral sheet, then as an independent. Although for several years it was thought its independency leaned, it adhered to that motto until the summer of 1876, when it came out squarely for the Democracy. It continued as an adherent of that cause until 1896, since which time it has been considered decidedly.independent in its political views. It has always been an able paper, and for many years it was the pet of all Hudson households, no matter what shade of political opinion prevailed.

William Ten Broeck Schermerhorn was born in Claverack, Columbia County, New York, March 18, 1835. He developed at an early age studious and industrious habits, and when but thirteen years old entered the office of the Wayne County Sentinel, at Palmyra, and thoroughly acquired the "art preservative." His ambition to progress in his calling led him to Utica, where lie worked for a time, and later he was employed in the Wayne County Democrat office at Lyons. Desiring to engage in business for himself, he came to Hudson, in 1858, and bought the Gazette, which was then in a collapsed condition. He continued the successful publication of the paper up to the time of his sudden death from heart disease, Dec. 15, 1884. William Ten Broeck, Jr., the oldest son, was attending school at Oberlin College at the time of his father's death. He unselfishly relinquished his plans for a professional career, and heroically applied himself to the work of carrying on the business and maintaining the family. In this he succeeded admirably, keeping the paper up to the reputation it had achieved under his father's management, till death called him from his labors, April 18, 1887. After his death the paper passed to the management of the second son, James, who resigned from his cadetship at West Point on account of his brother's ill health. James Schermerhorn continued at the head of the Gazette for a period of about ten years, and then removed to Detroit, where he is prominently connected with the newspaper business, as editor of the Daily Times. Late in 1862 Titus Babcock started a Republican newspaper in the village-of Hudson and named it the Herald. He continued to run the paper until, in 1865, he was succeeded by Russel D. Babcock and Daniel Russell; they were in turn succeeded by A. H. Pattee, who changed the name to Transcript, and he, in the spring of 1868, by Laird & Penfield, who again changed the name to Post. Chauncey W. Stevens succeeded to the management of the paper sometime in the year 1869, A. H. Pattee in 1870, and James M. Scarritt in the spring of 1872. During the latter part of the ownership by Pattee, Dr. Andrews was editor and manager. When Mr. Scarritt assumed the management, in the spring of 1872, lie found less than two hundred paying subscribers, and the office had no reputation for job work and but little material to do job work with. The only press that could be used was a Washington. Scarcely anyone would subscribe for the paper-its several changes had invariably been to the pecuniary loss of its subscribers-and they would trust it no more. The first year's business showed a loss of about eight hundred dollars, the second scarcely paid, but a reputation had been made, and thenceforward the progress was steady and constant. As a business manager Mr. Scarritt was a decided success.

Although Hudson now has but two papers, there have been several others, besides those already mentioned, started and published for a short time, but for some reason or other the demand did not seem to justify their continued existence. Immediately after the Rev. Jesse T. Webster assumed the duties of rector of Trinity Church, Hudson, he commenced the publication of the Record, a monthly parish newspaper, as an aid in parish work. This paper he enlarged and improved until, under a change of name, it became the organ, first of one, then of two dioceses. It was a beautiful and able religious journal, and was printed at the office of the Hudson Post until some time after the editor's removal to Detroit, when its publication office was changed to that place. Hall's Hudson Grocer, a monthly publication devoted to commercial interests, and Our Messenger, also issued monthly, and religious in the subject matter treated of, made their appearance in 1890, and enjoyed a reasonable degree of popularity during their existence. In 1894 a weekly paper appeared under the title of Hudson Republican, and a monthly called the Young People's Advance, but both of these publications ceased to appear in time, the field evidently not justifying the enterprise. Another paper, called The Vibrator, appeared in 1896, but it also joined the ranks of the deceased, after the promoters were thoroughly satisfied with their efforts. The newspaper history of Morenci is comprised in the story of the progress of that sprightly weekly journal, the Morenci Observer, and the success in the' upbuilding of that publication has been due in the main to the ability and energy of Erasnuis D. Allen and his sons, Augustus and Vernon, who succeeded to the management upon the death of their father.

Erasmus Darwin Allen was born in the township of Farmington, Ontario County, New York, May 3, 18-93. A farmer's son, he was early ambitious to acquire a good education, and in furtherance of that object attended the Canandaigua (N. Y.) Academy, where he was a very apt and industrious young student, especially proficient in mathematics. Subsequently, he attended -the State Normal School, at Albany, N. Y., in order to prepare himself for the profession of teaching. Shortly after graduating therein, he became principal of the Mendon (N. Y.) Academy, where he remained some time. In 1849, impelled by the emigration fever, he removed to Michigan and first settled in Medina, Lenawee County, where he entered into partnership with his brother in the mercantile and milling business. Still interested in the cause of education, lie materially assisted in the establishment of an academy at Medina, and was one of the contractors who erected the building to be used for that purpose. After about eight years residence at that place, he emigrated to Nebraska, and, purchasing some land, began farming operations near Brownville. About 1859 he decided to return to Michigan, and, coming to this County, located at Morenci, where, with the exception of a brief interval, he resided nearly a quarter of a century. He at once assumed the principalship of the public schools and filled that honorable position for several terms. About this time he entered upon his editorial career, first publishing the Morenci Star, a journal which prospered until the Civil war broke out and overshadowed all interests of a local or business character. He then entered the dry goods house of J. P. Cawley & Company, as bookkeeper, which position he retained for nine years. In 1872 Morenci for the first time heard the sound of a locomotive whistle, and entered upon a very lively and rapid growth. Mr. Allen, with ready discernment characteristic of him, saw the opportunity to make a village newspaper profitable, and at once embarked in the publication of a journal appropriately named the New Era, for which, by his untiring energy and tact, he soon secured a large circulation, and assisted largely in the growth and welfare of the village. After publishing the New Era for some three years, he was induced to sell his office and go to Detroit as publishing agent of the Michigan Christian Advocate, of which he was one of the original stockholders. Protracted sickness in his family prevented him from discharging the duties incumbent upon him in connection with that office satisfactorily to himself, and he therefore resigned it and returned to his old home in Morenci. In the autumn of 1875 he purchased the office of the Morenci News, which had been started in the meantime, and re-christened it the State Line Observer. This journal, the name of which was afterward changed to Morenci Observer, he managed until his death, which event occurred Feb. 28, 1885. During the later years of his life his sons had assisted him in the conduct of the paper, and after his death they assumed the entire management, which they continued with gratifying-success until they retired from business a few years ago. The Observer, under its present management, is being maintained at a high standard of efficiency and usefulness, and is counted among the leading weekly journals of southern Michigan.

Arthur D. Gilmore started the first paper in Blissfield, called the Blissfield Advertiser, in January, 1874. Mr. Gilmore at that time was a resident of Blissfield and engaged in the real estate and banking business. The Advertiser was a four-page paper with five columns to the page, and it was the intention to publish it quarterly, but after its second issue it was merged into, or rather succeeded by the Blissfield Advance. The Advance was first issued March 19, 1874, by C. T. Hamblin and Fred W. Samsen. In July, 188o, Mr. Hamblin retired from the firm and Mr. Samsen presided over the destinies of the paper until the early 90ís. He then disposed of the business to Orrin E. Hawkins, who conducted the paper until October, 1899, when he, in turn, sold it to Harry C. Wilson. In January, 1901, Mr. Wilson retired from the editorial sanctum and was succeeded by J. C. Howell and Walter S. Goff, who together managed the concern until 1904, when Mr. Howell retired. Mr. Goff then continued in charge of the publication until Jan. 6, 1906, when the business was purchased by Henry P. Winte, who has since conducted the paper, and under whose management it has become recognized as a journal of merit and a worthy representative of the business interests of Blissfield. The Addison Courier and Tri-County Advertiser first made its appearance at Addison, June 27, 1884, with Albert E. Marvin as editor and publisher. On Aug. 8, 1885, the good will of the business was sold to Scovel C. Stacy, of Tecumseh, and A. J. Kempton was installed as editor. On Dec. 30, 1887, A. J. Kempton purchased the good will of the paper, which up to that time had been printed at Tecumseh, and he secured the small mechanical equipment of the defunct Britton Eagle and commenced printing the paper in Addison. Mr. Kempton also for a time conducted a paper called the Lenawee County Prohibitionist, and also the Cement City Enterprise. On July 30, 1904, the Courier was sold to Prof. J. B. Stephenson, of Onsted. Prof. Stephenson was a man of large experience and was for some years, publisher of the Brooklyn Exponent. He conducted the Courier but a few months when his son, L. W. Stephenson, took charge. In September, 19o5, the latter sold the paper to Ralph Gary, who conducted it about a year and a half, and then sold it to John Steward, an attorney of Addison. Mr. Steward published the paper until September, 1907, when Mr. Stephenson again took charge, and has since managed it very successfully. In 1894 the Onsted News made its appearance at Onsted, in Cambridge Township, and it has continued publication until the present time, being a very creditable newspaper representative of that thriving village. Different ones have presided as editor-in-chief since its first issue, their names being as follows: Miss Myrtle Maxwell, Oscar Cummings, L. W. Stephenson, Glenn Easton, W. M. Hundley and Bert Thayer. The present owner took editorial charge in the spring of 1909, and the columns of the News give evidence of his experience and ability in that line of work. The village of Clinton has had a varied history so far as newspapers are concerned, a number having been started and for some reason or other ceased publication in the course of a reasonably short time. The Clinton Standard had the field to itself in the early 70s, but it seems to have gone by the board, given up the ghost, or something of that sort. Then, in the closing years of that decade, the Clinton News was published at that place for a time, but its office of publication was transferred to Tecumseh, as heretofore stated. It was soon succeeded, however, by the Clinton Local, which is still in existence and is now being published as a semiweekly, and in 19o6, the Clinton Courier, an independent weekly, was started and still lives in an apparently healthy condition. In 1880 the Deerfield Record began publication at the village of Deerfield, and it survived under that name for a number of years. In 1894 the Deerfield Times appeared, and in 1897 the name Times Journal is given in the list of the County's newspapers, the hyphenated cognomen indicating -a consolidation of the Times and Journal. Under that name the village paper is now issued and it has a very healthful appearance. In the foregoing pages an effort has been made to give a record, as nearly accurate as possible, of the different newspaper ventures that have been undertaken in Lenawee County.. Of those that for any considerable time weathered the storms that beset the mariner upon the tempestuous sea of journalism, the list given is, we believe, approximately correct. But many have started upon the literary voyage with high hopes and over-towering ambition, only to sink beneath the waves of oblivion and be forgotten. Of a number of these, but little information can be obtained. In 1838 The Madisonian, a Whig paper, was started at Tecumseh, but its existence was brief, and the fact of its being seems to have been forgotten. Among the other short-lived periodicals may be mentioned the following: The Anzieger and the Reformator, both German publications, at Adrian, are given in the Michigan Manual of 1875, as is also a monthly publication called the Michigan Advocate; the Billet Doux at Adrian, in 1881 ; the Educational News, a monthly publication, and the Repertory, a college monthly, both at Adrian, in 1883; the College World, a semi-monthly, and Our Church, a monthly, both of Adrian, are given in the list in 1881 ; the Advance, a weekly, the Grocer's Index, a monthly, and the Epworthian, also a monthly, all of Adrian, in 1893; the Christian Endeavor Helper, of Tecumseh, and the Michigan Representative, of Adrian, in 1897.

The list of present publications, as given by the Michigan Manual for z9o9, include the following: Courier (weekly), Addison; Michigan Patron (-monthly), Telegram (daily), and Times (daily and tri-weekly), Adrian; Advance (weekly), Blissfield; Courier (weekly) and Local (semi-weekly), Clinton; Times-Journal (weekly), Deerfield; Gazette (weekly), and Post (semi-weekly), Hudson; Observer (weekly), Morenci; News (weekly), Onsted; Herald (semi-weekly), and News (weekly), Tecumseh, and the Kodak (semi-monthly), Weston. To these should be added Greene's Weekly, the first number of which was issued at Cement City, April 9, 1909.

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History of Lenawee County
published by The Western Historical Society in 1909.

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