History of Lenawee County, Michigan - The Medical Profession



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CHAPTER XXXV. THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. THE LENAWEE COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY-TRIALS OF THE EARLY PHYSICIANS-PERSONAL MENTION OF EARLY PRACTITIONERS. The history of the medical profession of Lenawee county must necessarily be incomplete, as there were no records up to 1901. In the early days of the county there were but very few physicians, and no society of medical men was successfully organized until Oct. 22, 19oi ; consequently there is no authentic data for compilation. Many attempts to organize and form a county society had been made, but all were unsuccessful until October, 1901, when, through the indefatigable efforts of Dr. D. L. Treat, of Adrian, ably assisted by Drs. E. T. Morden and J. C. Johnson, of the same city, a society was organized, taking the name of "The Lenawee County Medical Society," affiliated with the State Medical Society, and it has today (I9o9) fifty-seven members. Any account must therefore necessarily be to a great extent traditional. And also, in the space allotted, it would be impossible to give a complete resume of all those who labored in the field of medicine and surgery in the early days of the county, ably and many of them, tenaciously, to combat the diseases prevalent in that period. The practice of medicine and surgery during the early history of our county was not a sinecure. The roads where there were any were necessarily poor, and many journeys had to be made over bridle-paths. Sometimes even these were impassable and the journey had to be made or completed on foot and by fording streams, climbing over fallen trees, crossing marshes-in fact, any way possible to carry succor to the afflicted. And many times the doctor arrived after death had closed the eyes that had looked so long for his coming. The doctor went on horse-back, carrying his saddle-bags, which contained his small stock of crude drugs (and he acquired rare proficiency in their efficacious combination) that he was compelled to use for all kinds of diseases. The medical practitioner of today can have but little comprehension of the arduous and resourceful life of the early "country doctor." Then, the physician furnished all of his medicine, many of his remedies being procured by himself from the vegetable kingdom, and they were administered in what was known in the vernacular as "horse-doses." Today, the busy doctor hands a prescription to his patient, who, taking it to some drug store, is furnished with an elegant pharmaceutical preparation which is satisfying to the eye and pleasing to the palate, in place of the crude and frequently nauseating compound then administered. Then, he had no trained assistants or nurses, and the attention given to the sick, while prompted by love or friendship, frequently was disastrous from excess of kindness. In the domain of surgery the advancement has been simply appalling. Then, the skill and ability of the operator were handicapped by his ignorance of sepsis, and many a patient paid with his life the penalty for the doctor's hands not being clean. Had we an authentic record of the early accidents, diseases, and deaths, together with their causes, and could we appreciate the limitations of the early physicians, we would not wonder that so many died, but that so many lived; and we of today should take off our hats to the resourcefulness and ability of our early brethren, who derived no assistance from the multitudinous antiseptics and the operative paraphernalia and technique that have been evolved since the early days. The medical education of many of the early physicians was extremely limited, and even those who had taken a college degree and possessed a diploma had no such educational equipment as the graduate of today. The early requirements to enter a medical college was a certificate of "good moral character," no preliminary education being necessary providing they could read and write; and the requirements for graduation were that the student should have attended two terms of lectures, each of six months' duration. Since that time the requirements have been steadily increased until today most colleges require a term of four years, each of nine months duration, and it is not any exaggeration to assert that it is now necessary to know more to get into a medical college than was necessary forty years ago to get out of one, with a diploma. The first physician to abide in Lenawee county was Dr. Caleb N. Ormsby, who first located in Tecumseh, but permanently set tied in Adrian in 1827. Dr. Michael A. Patterson was the first to permanently locate in Tecumseh, and he there continued in the active practice of his profession until 1875. He became very prominent in civic affairs and filled various positions of honor, among them being representative and senator in the state legislature. Dr. Beebe came to Adrian, in 1831, and practiced successfully for about a year, caught the small-pox while attending the family of Jacob Brown, and died from it in the summer of 1832. He was a young man of fine ability and his death, due to devotion to his profession, cast a gloom over the entire community. He was the second physician who settled in Adrian. Dr. Parley J. Spalding was the third physician to locate permanently in Adrian. He came NOV. 22, 1832, was justly considered an acquisition to the place and was always highly respected. At various times he held prominent positions, was register of deeds, mayor of the city, and at one time was a prominent candidate for Congress, but was defeated by a division in his own party. When he first located in Adrian he formed a co-partnership with Dr. Caleb N. Ormsby. This association was dissolved in about eighteen months and Dr. Spalding then practiced alone until 1836, when a partnership was formed with Dr. A. Barnard, under the name of Spalding & Barnard. This association continued until the death of Dr. Barnard, in the summer of 1864, after which Dr. Spalding continued alone until he retired from active practice, in the fall of 1871. He then sold out to Dr. George WV. Voorhees, who is at this date practicing in Adrian. Dr. Thomas F. Dodge was born in Andover, Windsor county, Vermont, Aug. 21, 1806. Of his early history there is but little known. His father died when he was eleven years old, and he then went to live with his uncle. Upon reaching manhood, he came to Blissfield, as early as Oct. 18, 1830. and on that date purchased a small farm of Isaac Randall, which tract of land, together with school-teaching, furnished him employment. On June 20, 1835, he purchased of John S. Older the east half of the north half ,of the northwest quarter of section 20, in the township of Madison, and there he resided until Nov. 14, 1836, when he sold his farm to Seth P. Benson. He then purchased of job S. Comstock the property on the corner of Main street and Dodge's alley, in Adrian. In the summer of 1859, he became a resident of Reading, Hillsdale county, where he lived for four years, and then returned to Adrian' and again occupied his old home on Main street. He practiced his profession more or less for over forty years, and by many his kind care and gentleness will long be remembered. He did not succeed in amassing a large fortune, but he left to his family a name untarnished. He died at his residence in Adrian, May 28, 1877. Dr. Robert Stephenson was born in County Monaghan. Ireland, Aug. 20, 1821. He graduated at Anderson Medical College, Glasgow, Scotland, in 1845. He then took a trip to Greenland and,. about 1847, came to Adrian, where he began to build up a large and lucrative practice. To illustrate the patience necessary to establish a practice, the writer will state that he was personally told by Dr. Stephenson that the first six months he (Dr. Stephenson) was in practice he did not make fifty dollars, and he was pretty well discouraged. The diseases of this county, similar to those of any new country (and mostly of telluric origin) were so different from those where he received his degree that he took a course in the Buffalo Medical College and graduated in that institution in 1855. He then resumed his practice in Adrian and there continued until 18go. While abroad, he died at Vienna; Austria, Aug. 9, 1880. Dr. Alexander AV. Seger was for years a physician well known in this community. He came to this section of the country in the summer of 1847, after having graduated at Worcester (Mass.) Medical College, and at about the time of engaging in practice secured a tract of land on section 22, in Rome township. He was born at Chittenden, Rutland county, Vermont, Oct. 15, 1822, and remained with his parents on the farm until reaching his majority. He early became interested in medicine and entered the office of Dr. J. G. Ross at Middlebury, under whose instructions he studied four years and commenced practice. Later, he attended lectures at Woodstock Medical College, and completed his studies at Worcester as already stated. In the spring of 1848, he removed from his farm to Rome Center, where he engaged in the practice of his profession, which he continued there until 1870. 'In the spring of that year, he sold his property in Rome and removed to the city of Adrian, purchasing a fine residence on the corner of Michigan avenue and Madison street. Here he established himself as a physician. He was for a time interested in the drug trade, but after 188o gave his entire attention to his practice. He was always strictly temperate and never tasted a drop of intoxicating liquor or used tobacco in any form. Dr. Edwin P. Andrews was born at Plymouth, Wayne county, Michigan, Aug. 26, 1826. He remained at the home of his parents and assisted in the work upon the farm, including the clearing of the timber from the land, until he was twenty-one years of age. At the age of twenty-one he began the study of medicine with Drs. Graham & Decker, prominent and successful physicians of Adrian. He remained under their instruction until in the fall of 1848, when he became a student in the Starling Medical College, of Columbus, Ohio. During the prosecution of his medical studies in college he was obliged to work during the vacation in order to procure money to defray his expenses. He graduated at this college in the spring of 185o, and in that year began the practice of medicine in Adrian, which occupation he continued during the remainder of his life. In 1861 he was appointed by President Lincoln as examining surgeon for Lenawee county, to examine all candidates for the service of the government during the Civil war. He was also for a number of years the examining surgeon for pensions. Dr. Nelson H. Kimball was for year’s a prominent member of the medical profession in Adrian. He was born in the town of Martinsburg, Lewis county, New York, Sept. 1o, 1820. His father died when the son was but two years old, and the latter was adopted into the family of Arba Jones, who emigrated from New York, in 1837, and settled in Seneca township, Lenawee county. While residing in Martinsburg, young Kimball attended the district schools, where he began the education which was completed in after life. At the age of nineteen years (in 1,839), he went to Tecumseh, where he engaged to learn the carpenter's trade tinder the instructions of Charles Van Valkenburg. After working at this for some years, he entered the office of Drs. Spalding & Barnard, in 1847, and began the study of medicine. He prosecuted his studies in their office until he was fitted for entering the Cleveland Medical College, at which he graduated in 1850. From that time he was continuously engaged in the practice of his profession in the city of Adrian and vicinity. From the beginning of his professional career he was a close student, and his manners were always quiet and unassuming. He served in various civic offices, was a member of the board of health, city physician, and also served as mayor. For many years he was surgeon for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad. Dr. Charles Rynd was born in County Donegal, Ireland, Dec. 28, 1835. He graduated in the medical department of the University of Michigan, in the spring of 1859. In November of the same year he located in the. city of Adrian, where he continuously practiced his profession until the day of his death, Aug. 19, 1884. He served four years on the common council, and was also president of the board of education. In 1871 he was elected as a member of the Board of Regents of the State University by a very large majority. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in Cincinnati, in 1876, and aided largely in the nomination of Rutherford B. Hayes. He was for many years, examiner for the pension department and was a warm friend of the soldiers. He was always actively engaged in local and state politics, and as a public speaker had but few equals. Dr. Daniel Todd was born at Petersborough, N. H., Dec. 17, 18x7. He graduated at the University of, Buffalo College, in 1851, and settled in Canandaigua the same year, remaining until 1854, when he moved to Madison township and practiced his profession there until 1870, when he moved to Adrian, where he is still actively engaged in his professional work at this date (1909). Dr. Joseph Tripp was born at Bristol, England, Nov. 3,-1827, and lived there until he was three years old. His parents came to America in 1831, and settled in the present township of Franklin, on the shore of Sand Lake. He resided with his parents in that township, receiving his education there and at the Michigan University, and then located in Tecumseh. He came to Adrian, March 17, 1850, and, in the office of Dr. R. Stephenson, commenced the study of medicine, remaining there, including lecture terms, for three years. He attended two courses of lectures at Ann Arbor, and graduated at the Cleveland Medical College, in February, 1854. He then went to Morenci and commenced the practice of his profession, remaining there five years. He then went to Buffalo and attended a course of lectures at the Buffalo Medical College, receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine, which was conferred on him by Millard Fillmore, who was at that time chancellor of that institution. Returning to Morenci, he continued to practice at that place until 1861, when he moved to Ypsilanti and lived there until September, 1873. He then removed to Adrian and formed a partnership with Dr. Stephenson, which lasted but a short time, and then he opened an office alone in rooms formerly occupied by Drs. Spalding & Barnard. In 1873 he received an appointment as examining surgeon for the commissioners of the Department of, the Interior, which position he held for a short time and then resigned in consequence of his removal from Ypsilanti to Adrian. He was city physician at Ypsilanti for four years and was employed by the county superintendents of the. poor to attend to the poor in the city of Adrian. The first to perform the duties of a physician in Blissfield and vicinity was a woman-Mrs. Margaret Giles, wife of George Giles, the first hotel-keeper in the place. Although not regularly licensed, according to the requirements of today, she proved her efficiency ,in many cases, and her services were considered indispensable by the early pioneers of that section of the county. Mrs. Giles, whose maiden name was Margaret Crow, was born in Pennsylvania, in 1793, and died at Blissfield, Oct. 14, 1864. She was one of the most useful, kind-hearted, and intelligent women who ever settled in a new country. She was a good cook, a good nurse, and was the only doctor in Blissfield for fourteen years. No woman was ever better or more favorably known throughout this whole region of country than she. She answered calls from Adrian to Petersburg, day or night, and always went on horse-back, and her name was a household word in the east half of the county. Dr. Joseph Howell, the first physician to practice his profession in the township of Macon, was a native of the state of New York, of English extraction. He moved with his family to Lenawee county, in 1831, and located upon a farm in the township of Macon, and for many years thereafter practiced his profession among the people of that part of the county. He was also one of the members representing Lenawee county in the convention of 1835, which framed the first constitution of the state of Michigan. He was born in 1803, and lived to an advanced age, in a remarkable state of preservation, both physically and mentally. Dr. Alonzo Cressy, who was among the first, if not the first physician to locate in the village of Clinton, was born in Scipio, N. Y., in 18o8. He received a fair education, studied medicine, and began= practice at Lima, N. Y. There he married a daughter of Dr. Justin Smith, and emigrated to Clinton in 1831. In 1832 he accompanied a detachment of troops, which was sent to the Black Hawk war, as far as Chicago, treating many attacked with cholera and studying the malady in the hospital. He removed to Hillsdale in 1855 and there took high rank as a physician. He died many years since. Dr. William Holloway was probably the first physician to locate in the township of Raisin. He was born in Massachusetts in 1781, and there resided until about 1816, when he emigrated to York, Livingston county, New York, where he practiced medicine until he came to Lenawee county in 1833. He settled in Raisin township, where he continued the practice of his profession until his death, Aug. 10, 1852. Dr. Increase S. Hamilton was for many years one of the most popular physicians in Lenawee county. He was a native of Massachusetts, born Jan. 5, 18og, near the home of the poet, William Cullen Bryant. He received his education in Orleans county, New York, whither his parents removed when he was but a small boy, and in Monroe Academy he acquired a knowledge of the higher branches, including Latin and Greek. When about twenty-one years old he commenced the study of medicine in the office of Dr. James Willard, of Geauga county, Ohio, and later entered the Western Branch of the New York University, at Fairfield, in which he graduated in 1835. In casting about for his future location, he decided to seek a place in the Territory of Michigan, and in May, 1835, first set foot in Lenawee county, stopping at Canandaigua, on Bean creek, where he commenced the practice of his profession, and remained in that vicinity for the ensuing nine years. In the spring of 1844 he took up his residence in Tecumseh, where he followed his profession' continuously until the spring of 1887, when failing health admonished him that it would be wise to retire. He devoted over half a century to the duties of his profession, looking upon it in its true light, as a solemn responsibility, and one in which it behooved him to gain all the knowledge possible. Dr. James H. Sweeney was the first physician in the vicinity of Morenci. He came from New York about 1835 and. practiced his profession in that locality for many years. Dr. Nathan Town 'was born in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, July 15, 1790. He lived in his native state until he reached manhood, and then removed to the state of New York. He remained there only a short time, however, and then went to Norwich, London district (now Oxford county), Canada, where he settled and lived until x838. While a young man he studied medicine, and after his location in Canada commenced practice and became a successful physician. In 1836 what is familiarly known as the "Patriot War" broke out, and the Doctor was in sympathy with the patriots. In 1837 he was arrested on a charge of treason and imprisoned in the Hamilton jail for nine months, at the end of which. time he, with others, was sentenced to be hanged. A short time before the day set for the hanging, a reprieve came from Queen Victoria, and the Doctor was banished from the Province, being compelled to leave before he could settle his affairs or get his family ready to move. He immediately went to Detroit, arriving in November, 1838, and there he remained until his family came. He then went to Hanover, Jackson county, where he remained until the following spring, and in May, 1839, located government land on the shore of Round Lake, on section 1I, Rollin township, and there he Lived until his death, which occurred Oct. 28, 18S4. He did very little at €arming, but devoted his entire attention to the practice of medicine, which he followed to the time of his last sickness. He was the second physician to locate in Rollin, Dr. IIall having been the first. Dr. Leonard G. Hall was a pioneer of Lenawee county, and for many years a prominent physician, being one of the earliest of that profession to establish himself in this county. He was born in Duanesburg, Schenectady county, New York, Aug. 7, 18o6, and in the same year the parents removed to Cold Brook, Herkimer county. There the future' doctor was reared, and in his youth turned his attention to the study of medicine. Having first to earn money to pay for his tuition, he selected the shoemaker's trade, and after learning it he went to St. Catherines, Canada, and was there employed by the contractors of a canal to make boots and shoes for their men. He carefully, saved his earnings and was thus enabled to attend the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Fairfield, N. Y., in which he graduated with honors, his diploma bearing the date of Jan: 23, 1834. Thus well equipped for his chosen profession, he selected the Territory of Michigan, the southern part of which was being rapidly settled, as a promising field for a young physician to establish a good practice in, and directly after graduation he came here and located in Rollin township. He made his home with Daniel Rhodes, continuing practice there until 1840, when he removed to Lanesville, as the city of Hudson was then called, and opened an office there. The present city of Hudson was then but a small hamlet, with no railway connections, and he was obliged for a time to drive to Monroe for his medicine. He continued in active practice there until I86o, when he opened a drug store, and after that practiced but little until his death, which occurred Oct. 2g, 1877. During his long residence in Hudson he -won the entire confidence and respect of all in the community. Dr. Rufus Kibbee came from the state of New York and was a physician and druggist at Canandaigua for a number of years. He removed to Coldwater about 1867, and there died in 1883 or 1844. Dr. Chappell came in 1844. and was widely known for his ability, forcefulness and originality. Dr. Brown died in Medina in 1858, and was succeeded by Dr. Weeds, who remained until in 1861, when he was commissioned a surgeon in the United States army. Dr. James S. Power succeeded Dr. Weeds, and there remained until 1866. Dr. Ely, an "eclectic," and Dr. Dodge, a "regular," also practiced in the village of Medina a number of years. In addition to the physicians already named, Drs. Titus, Hampton and Kendall have practiced medicine in Medina. Dr. Titus came about 1845, and for a time was a partner of Dr. Brown. He removed to the state of New York, thence to Missouri, and returned to Medina in 1862 and stayed one year. He was a successful practitioner. Dr. Carlos G. Hampton practiced in company with Dr. Brown two or three years and afterward, for some time, lived on a farm near the village. He removed to Texas about 1859 or i86o, but on account of Union sentiments was driven out of the South two or three years later. After his return he practiced medicine in Hudson for a time, and then removed to Muir, in this state. Dr. Kendall lived on a farm in the southern part of Medina township, and practiced medicine there for many years. He afterward engaged in the drug business at Fayette, Ohio. Dr. Henry Wyman was born in Keene, Cheshire county, New Hampshire, April 2, 1803, and when one year old was taken by his parents to Jefferson county, New York. He left home when he was twenty years old, having received an academic education, and he taught school at Geneva until his father died, when he returned home and settled up the estate. In 1825 he went to Lockport, N. Y., where he taught school and read medicine three years. In 1831 he went to Springfield, Ohio, where he practiced medicine for a few months, after which he went to Richmond, Ind., and in the spring of 1832 he located in Anderson, Ind., as a physician. In 1841 he went South and settled in Ripley, Upton county, Mississippi, where he remained until 1843, and then came North and located in Blissfield on Aug. 15, of that year. He immediately associated himself with Dr. James W. Holmes, in the practice of medicine and surgery. In 1847 he went back to Anderson, Ind., engaging in the practice of medicine and also becoming the editor and publisher of the Anderson Gazette, which he sold in 1855. In May, 1864, he returned to Blissfield, where he resided the remainder of his life. Dr. Henry P. Combs was born in Onondaga county, New York, June 19, 1820. and cane to Lenawee county in 1838. About 1840 he commenced the study of medicine and followed it closely. After graduating at the Cleveland (Ohio) Medical College, in 1845, he began the practice of medicine in Rome township. He at once became very successful and popular in his profession, which he faith; fully followed until 1865, when he retired from active practice. He became one of the best known and most popular men in his township, and to the end of his life commanded the respect and confidence of all classes. He died Jan. 1895. Dr. William Brown, for twenty-five years or more, was a successful practicing physician of Lenawee county, but in 1882 he associated himself with his youngest son and established a drug store at Addison, to which business he afterward gave a share of his attention. He was a native of the state of New York, and was born near Fort Ticonderoga, Aug. 3, 1821. He continued under the home roof, attending the district school during his boyhood, and did very little work until thirteen years of age, after which, when not in school, he was employed upon the farm. Later he went to Niagara county, New York, and attended a private school, under the instruction of Professor Whitlock, and afterward engaged as a teacher two years, spending his vacations upon the farm. In the meantime he took up the study of medicine, and later, entered the office of Dr. Case, of Rome township, with whom he spent two years. After the death of Dr. Case he placed himself under the tuition of Dr. Grove and subsequently Dr. Spalding, of Adrian. He commenced the practice of his profession in Rome township in 1846, and followed it in the northwestern part of the county up to the time he retired from active practice. Dr. Roland B. C. Newcomb was born at Williamstown, Orange county, Vermont, Sept. 25, 1822. He lived with his father until he was twenty-one, and received a good common school education. In the fall of 1843 he emigrated to Madison, Lake county, Ohio, where he taught the Madison school the following winter. In 1844 he became a student in the Western Reserve Teacher's Seminary, at Kirkland, Ohio, where he remained about five months. That fall he commenced the study of medicine in the office of Dr. E. L. Plimpton, of Madison. He was without means, except what he could earn from time to time, and he again taught school in Madison to procure money to attend lectures, etc. In the spring of 1847 he went to Columbus, Ohio, and read medicine with Dr. R. L. Howard, doing chores and taking care of the Doctor's horses for his board and tuition for one year. He graduated Feb. 22, 1848, from Starling Medical College, of Columbus, and on July 20, of the same year, he located in Palmyra, Lenawee county, where he commenced the practice of medicine. On May 1, 1851, he moved to Blissfield, where he resided the remainder of his life. Dr. Jabez Perkins was born at Defiance, Ohio, Oct. 26, 1820. He received an academical education at Delaware, studied medicine, and graduated at Cleveland in 1849. He practiced medicine at Springville, Cambridge township, for ten years, but removed to Owosso in 186o. He took charge of a hospital at Nashville in 1862, became a surgeon of Kentucky volunteers, medical director of the Second army corps, and then medical director off the cavalry corps, Army of the Cumberland. Dr. A. F. Tuttle, late of Clinton, was one of the most prominent and successful physicians in the county. He was a native of Niagara Falls, N. Y., where he was born Aug. 9, 1827, of New England parentage. He died at his home in Clinton, Jan. 8, 1884. He removed with his parents to Ann Arbor in his childhood, and was there reared, receiving his education in the public schools. When fifteen years old he was requested by his father to select a profession, and he chose the practice of medicine. He at once connected himself with Drs. Sager, Douglas & Gunn, and was with them three years before the college of Ann Arbor was organized. He was graduated at Geneva, N. Y., which then had one of the principal medical schools of the country, and he also took a course of lectures at Cleveland, Ohio. After graduating at the age of twenty-three, he located at Clinton in 1850. He began the practice of medicine when there were but few advantages for a physician. He was not easily discouraged, however, and proved to be very successful in his practice. Dr. J. D. Tripp, long a practicing physician in the township of Franklin, was born on the other. side of the Atlantic, in Bristol, England, Nov. 28, 1825, and was an elder brother of Dr. Joseph Tripp. His parents came to this country when he was about five years old and located on the shore of Sand Lake. He has ever made his, home in this county. In early manhood he began the study of medicine and soon took up the duties and responsibilities of a physician. He attended lectures in the medical department of the University of Michigan. In his practice he was faithful and conscientious and he was rated among the leading men of Franklin township. Dr. Francis Grandy ministered to the ills of the people of Fairfield village and vicinity as a physician and surgeon for a period of over thirty years. He was a native of the Empire state, and was born in the town of Root, Montgomery county, Dec. 31, 1826. He was reared upon the farm and followed agriculture until reaching his majority, up to that time receiving only the advantages of the common school, supplemented by a brief term at the Canajoharie Academy. He had already decided upon the medical profession as his future calling in life, and entered the office of Dr. Jerome Shibley, of Charleston, Montgomery county, with whom he continued one year. He accompanied his parents to Lenawee county in 1848, and was a student with Dr. T. F. Dodge two years. IN 1851 he entered the medical department of the university at Ann Arbor, where he took a six months' course, and in the spring of 1852, opened his first office in the young village of Fairfield. Like all young physicians he had his own peculiar trials, but in time he found his toil and perseverance rewarded, and he built up a practice which required his whole time and attention. In 1871 he opened a drug and grocery store, which he conducted successfully the remainder of his active life. He traveled about the country in the prosecution of his chosen calling for a period of thirty years, then wisely concluded to retire from the arduous duties of his profession, and in the later years of his life he gave his sole attention to his office business and his store. As a man and citizen he ranked among the representative pioneers of Lenawee county. Dr. Harrison Peters was born at-Fayette, Seneca county, New York, April 6, 1826. He lived with his father until he was twentyone, and received a good common school education, coming to Michigan with his parents in 1835. In the spring of 1847 he became a student at Ypsilanti Seminary, then considered one of the very best educational institutions in Michigan, and there he remained until the summer of 1850, preparatory to the study of medicine. The same year he commenced the reading of medicine with Dr. Thompson, of Flat Rock, Wayne county, and after attending lectures at Ann Arbor and Cleveland, he graduated at the head of his class at the Geneva (N. Y.) Medical College, in June, 1853. On Aug. 9, of the same year, he commenced the practice of medicine in Palmyra, where he remained until Jan. 5, 1864, and then removed to Tecumseh, where he became a well known and successful practitioner. Dr. William B. Town was born in Norwich, Oxford county, Dominion of Canada, July 23, 1830, and was the son of Dr. Nathan Town, who is mentioned on a previous page. He pursued his early ,studies in the district, and subsequently attended the school at Jackson during the winter season. He commenced reading medicine under the instruction of Dr. H. Powers, of Rollin, when twenty-one' years of age, and took a two years course in the medical department of Michigan University. He gave his close attention to the duties of his profession, availing himself of the instructive medical works of the day, and by a conscientious and upright course in due time built up a profitable and extensive business. He was the postmaster at Geneva for a period of seventeen years. Dr. William C. Fisher, late physician and surgeon of Tecumseh, was one of the most prominent and active members of the profession, and a citizen held in the highest esteem. His infant years were spent on the other side of the Atlantic, he having -been born in England Jan. 7, 1830. While he was yet a child his parents migrated to the United States, and not long after setting foot upon American soil made their way to Lenawee county, taking up their abode in the village of Tecumseh, in the spring of 1840. The primary education of Dr. Fisher was conducted in the schools of Tecumseh, and after going through the high school, he entered the office of Dr. Hamilton, tinder whose instructions he read medicine for several months and then entered the state university at Ann Arbor, in the medical department, of which he graduated. Soon afterward, he commenced the practice of his profession in Tecumseh, in which place he continued actively engaged until his fatal illness, his death occurring May 10, 1879. In addition to his extensive practice, he owned a half interest in the drug business of Fisher & Hendryx, and later with his brother-in-law, Dr. H. Baker. Dr. Charles St. Stocum located in Morenci for the practice of his profession, in June, 1855. He was born in Delaware county, New York, April 3, 1834, but removed with his parents to Lenawee county in 1837. He was reared on a farm, receiving his education in the common schools until about eighteen years of age, when he began the study of medicine with Dr. John Bender, of Adrian, with whom he remained two years and eight months. He then attended a course of lectures at the Eclectic Medical College at Cincinnati, where he was graduated in the spring of 1855 and received his diploma. The following June he located in Morenci, where he afterward extensively engaged in the practice of his profession. Dr. Julius Vaughan began the practice of his profession at Springville, in the township of Cambridge, in the spring of 1862. He was a native of Concord township, Erie county, New York, born March 21, 1833. He passed his early years at home and received a good practical education at Griffith Institute in his native county. Later, when about-twenty-four years old, he began the study of medicine. He then entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York City, where he was graduated in the stammer of 186o, and he practiced in this county during all of his active career. Dr. Thomas H. Laverty was born in Lockport, N. Y., Dec. 1821. He came to Jackson county, Michigan, with his- parents, in 1831, and his father dying soon thereafter, he lived with an uncle until he was eighteen, receiving very little schooling. In 1839 he went to Northville, Wayne county, and worked for a school-teacher for his board and tuition during one term. He afterward went to school at different places on the same terms until he was twenty, when he went to Sandstone, Jackson county, then a live little village, and commenced the study of medicine. In 184.4 he went to Castleton, Vt., and attended the medical college there for one term. In the spring of 1845 he went to Royalton, Ohio, and 'commenced the practice of medicine. In 1846-47 he attended the Western Reserve College at Cleveland, Ohio, and graduated from the medical department in the spring of 1847. He returned to Royalton and remained one year, after which he moved.to Fairfield, in Lenawee county. In 1852 he went to Hillsdale, where he remained until 1856_ He then moved to Adrian, where he lived for one year, and in June, 1857, he went to California, where he spent ten years and six months in the practice of dentistry. In 1868 he returned to his old home in Fait-field, and there practiced medicine the remainder of his active career. He saw a great .deal of pioneer life, especially that of a pioneer physician. He made visits twenty miles apart in one day, often being compelled to hitch his horse to a tree and wade through water, over logs and through brush for long distances. He witnessed a great amount of sickness and suffering among the settlers, who did not know how to manage the fevers of the early days of this county. Among other physicians of prominence who deserve commemoration as earnest devotees of their profession should be mentioned the elder and younger Drs. Post, who practiced in Adrian in an early day; Dr. Hoyt, Dr. John Bender, Dr. Bennett, Dr. M. L. Piersol, and Dr. Harry Hull, the last named of whom passed to his reward but a few years ago. Dr. Harry D. Hull was born at Westfield, Mass., July 23,'1953. About 186o his parents moved to Adrian, Mich., where they resided up to the time of their deaths. Dr. Hull was an accomplished musician, having graduated in the musical department of Adrian College, in 1870.. He graduated at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1877, and immediately took up the practice of his profession in Adrian, and was so engaged up to the time of his death, Sept. 24, 1905. He was one of the brightest men, both professionally and socially, that the county has ever known. Dr. J. K. Piersol was born at Westchester, Pa., Feb. 28, 1834. He was a graduate of the Buffalo University and later took a postgraduate course at the University of Pennsylvania. He came to Adrian, Mich., in January, 1861, and there he continuously practiced his profession until his final illness, death occurring Jan. 2, 1902. He was not of a social nature, but was highly respected as a physician by both the laity and profession. It has not been the aim in this chapter to give anything like a complete list of the men who have lived and labored" in the practice of the medical profession in Lenawee county. For reasons already stated-this task would be impossible of accomplishment if entered upon, as there have been scores of physicians who have been "birds of passage." but those who are mentioned fairly represent the class of men who devoted their time and talents in the early days of the county to preserve the health of the people. Of the physicians now engaged in active practice and others who are deceased, many are given extended mention in the biographical volume, of this work, and some are also given a place in chapters upon affairs with which they were prominently identified.

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History of Lenawee County
published by The Western Historical Society in 1909.

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