THE, BLACK HAWK WAR-THE ADRIAN GUARDS-FIRST MILITARY ENCAMPMENT-TI-IE WAR WITH MEXICO-CIVIL WAR PERIOD-DIFFERENCES OF OPINION-FIRST MASS MEETING IN ADRIAN-ENLISTMENTS-FIRST, SECOND AND FOURTH INFANTRY REGIMENTS-THE GALLANT ELEVENTH--THE TWELFTH, FIFTEENTI~ SIXTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, EIGHTEENTH AND TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY REGIMENTS-"ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS" REGIMENT-BATTERIES OF ARTILLERY-CAVALRY-SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR.
The year 1832 was a stirring one in the annals of the young county of Lenawee. In the spring Black Hawk, with a band of warriors, crossed the Mississippi river and advanced through the settlements. He was attacked by a body of Illinois militia, and .then the Indians broke up into small parties and -began an indiscriminate massacre of the inhabitants, still constantly advancing toward Chicago, which seemed their common objective point. Chicago was then an insignificant trading post, protected by a fort, but the probabilities were, if that post should fall, the Indians, encouraged by success there, would advance through the infant settlements of Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan to the Canada line. Word came to the infant settlements in the southern tier of counties that the Indians were advancing, and along' with it the call of the Indian Agent at Chicago for military assistance. There were enough Indians within these counties to cut the throats of the white inhabitants, if aroused, and perhaps the best way to defend their own homes was to meet the enemy beyond the borders of the Territory. Gen. Joseph W. Brown had been given the command of the Third brigade of the Michigan militia, and without waiting for orders from the governor, he ordered his brigade to rendezvous at the village of Niles. The Eighth (Lenawee) regiinent, then commanded by Col. William McNair, responded nobly
640 MEMOIRS Or LENAWEE COUNTY
to the call, and was in the shortest possible time ready for the order to march.
The regiment was composed of two companies from Tecumseh, one from Adrian, and one from the village of Clinton, which had sprung into existence since the completion of the Chicago road. General Broivn's order required Colonel McNair to take only volunteers. Said the order: "Take no man with you who is not a volunteer. Let the timid return to their homes." When the regiment was drawn up into line, the order was read, and all who desired to return home were ordered to step four paces to the front, but not a man advanced. The regiment took up its line of march by the way of the Chicago road for Niles, the .place appointed for the brigade rendezvous. The feelings of mothers and children, as they saw every able-bodied man move off to battle with the Indian foe, hundreds of miles away, can be better imagined than described. It is true the danger was then distant, but the minds of those left behind must have been keenly alive to the terrors of Indian warfare. It was then not twenty years since the horrible massacre at the River Raisin, only a few miles off, the details of which were all too well remembered to beget a feeling of security. The Indians living in their midst were friendly, it is true, but such was the known treachery of the Indian character that the settlers lived in dread lest even these friendly Indians should suddenly go upon the warpath and fall upon them in their unprotected condition. But the red men remained friendly, and before the brigade left Niles the regi lar army, under General Atkinson, defeated the hostile Indians and captured Black Hawk. The troops were sent home with the thanks of the commanding general for the spirit displayed in their prompt response to the call of their country.
During the interim between this war-like episode and the commencement of the war with Mexico, in 1846, the martial spirit of the people was kept in forced abeyance. This was due partially to the stern realities of pioneer life, with which they had to contend, and partially to the lack of opportunity or occasion to show their fighting tendencies. The Adrian Guards, the first military company regularly equipped by the state, in Lenawee county, was organized May 10, 1842, by Daniel Hicks, who was elected captain, which office he held until 1847, when he went to Mexico in command of a company. F. J. King was first lieutenant, Edwin Comstock second lieutenant and William Aldrich orderly sergeant. In 1843 George W. Hicks was elected orderly, he being the best drillmaster in the company. Charles M. Croswell was elected captain to succeed Captain Hicks, and held the office until the next annual election, when the late Frederick Hart was made captain, which position he held until April, 1861, with the exception of one year, 1855, when Justus H. Bodwell was made captain. In a copy of the old "Detroit Advertiser" an account of the first military encampment ever held in Adrian is given, the same having occurred July 4, 1843. The encampment consisted of the Brady Guards, of Detroit; the Monroe City Guards, the Toledo Guards, the Washtenaw Guards, and the Adrian Guards. The late Pomeroy Stone was quartermaster of the encampment. The narrator in the "Advertiser" says
"I do not hesitate to pronounce the Adrian Guards the best drilled company of its age which can be found anywhere. Its members wore a neat uniform, and appeared full of the genuine military spirit. Captain Hicks, their commander, is a perfect gentleman. I would say the same of Captains Hill and Mundy, the first of the Toledo, the second of the Washtenaw Guards. The Toledo Guards have a beautiful uniform; the Washtenaws, one very similar to our own, except that they wore black shoulder-knots and plumes. I cannot speak too highly of the soldierly and gentlemanly bearing of the men of each company; we were taken by the hand by them all. and treated in a manner we shall never forget. The Sabbath was spent very appropriately, by a prompt attendance at the several churches to which the companies were assigned. The great day of days, the -Fourth of July, was ushered in amid the roar of cannon, the wild beating of drums, and vociferous cheering of thousands of iron-nerved men-every heart was full-all eyes beamed with a new luster, and gladness and joy trembled on every tongue. Long before daylight the people from the country began to pour in, and by 10 o'clock, the time assigned for forming the procession, not less than 6,ooo people were in Adrian."
The part of Lenawee county in the war with Mexico, while neither great nor distinguished, was such as to reflect credit upon the patriotism of her people. On May i8, 1846, a requisition was made by the war department upon the governor of Michigan for the enrollment of a regiment of volunteer infantry of ten companies, to be held in readiness for active service when called for by the President. Under this call thirteen companies were tendered, Lenawee county offering three, but only one company-the Brady Guard, of Detroit-was accepted. Under a second call, in October, 1847, a regiment was enrolled and mustered as the "First Michigan Volunteers," Company G of which was raised and commanded by Capt. Daniel Hicks, of Adrian. This company was recruited in the counties of Hillsdale and Lenawee, and in due time landed at Vera Cruz, near which place it was stationed until the close of the war. It was mustered out at Detroit, July 23, 1848, having returned from Mexico via New Orleans, Chicago and Mackinac. It was in actual service somewhat less than six months, and although its members did not meet the enemy, they performed faithfully the duty assigned them, which is all that any soldier can do.
In May, 1847, three companies were enrolled in Michigan for the Fifteenth United States infantry, in which regiment they became Companies A, E and G. Company G, of this regiment, was raised in this section of the state and contained a number of men from Lenawee county, Ahira G. Eastman, of Adrian, being_ chosen as first lieutenant. The regiment proceeded to Vera Cruz in the spring of 1847, and participated in the advance on the city of Mexico. Company G, however, did not leave Vera Cruz until Aug. 6, and after engaging with distinguished credit at the battle at the "National Bridge," on Aug. 12, and at Paso Ovejas, on the 10th, it arrived at Jalapa, on the 20th. These three companies of "regulars" from Michigan distinguished themselves for valor and shed luster on the state by their splendid actions on many fields. The regiment was mustered out Aug. 21, 1848.
There was one other company raised in Michigan which took an active and a most honorable part in the war with Mexico, and, a number of its members were from Lenawee county. We refer to Company K, of the Third United States Dragoons. In April, 1847, this company marched for the seat of war, 104 strong, and when it returned only seventeen of the original members answered to the roll call. The climate of Mexico had claimed some of them for untimely graves, battle had taken victims both by death and disabling wounds, and many had been discharged and sent home to save them from the deadly disease that assailed them. This company was notable for its distinguished corps of officers. It was commanded by Capt. Andrew T. McReynolds, then of Detroit, who became colonel of the First New York cavalry in the Civil war; John T. Brown, of Tecumseh, son of Gen. Joseph WV. Brown, was first lieutenant, and J. C. D. Williams, of Detroit, son of Gen. John R. Williams, was second lieutenant. Companies K, of the Third Dragoons, and F, of the First Dragoons, constituted General Scott's body-guard, and from these companies his personal escort, which consisted of ten men, was chosen. The late James N, A. L. Simonds, of Raisin township, was. one of these ten men, and he served on this guard until the war was over, and General Scott returned to Washington. While on a scout, in which members of Company K participated, at Toyacan, near Orizaba, General Santa Anna was routed and, his effects captured. Among the trophies were 125 dresses belonging to the Mexican commander's wife and daughter, and two very valuable canes. Another trophy, captured by Mr. Simonds and his chum, the late Carlisle Soper, of Palmyra, was General Santa Anna's boot, a most tasty and neat article of footgear. The boot was taken from the General's headquarters by these two Lenawee county men, and they brought it with them when they returned to their Michigan homes. Company K, as an organization, served until the war was over, its members doing their full duty, and by their heroic conduct they added luster to the fair name of the Wolverine State.
THE CIVIL WAR PERIOD.
The mutterings of internal strife, which had engaged the attention of statesmen for some years prior to i86o, in that year began to take tangible shape, and the people came to realize that the settlement of the questions of unlimited state sovereignty and slavery extension could no longer be deferred by legislative compromises. The result of the Presidential election portended the abolition of slavery in the territories and in all new states to be admitted thereafter, but in exactly what manner the decision in regard to unlimited state sovereignty should be made was a subject not agreed upon, even by national leaders at the North, where the dominant party disclosed its strength. The incoming national administration, in 1861, faced an unprecedented crisis in American history and apparently was uncertain how to proceed in the midst of the alarming dilemma that confronted it. A number of the slave-holding states had passed ordinances of secession, thereby exercising a right that had been generally claimed and not seriously disputed since the adoption of the Constitution, and those who desired the maintenance of the Union were vainly searching for a solution of the difficult problem. Able and patriotic statesmen, regardless of party affiliation, were giving their time and talents to the perplexing question, hoping to discover a pathway that would lead to a satisfactory adjustment of all differences-when all plans were disarranged by the firing on Fort Sumter, and the administration was afforded a pretext, if not a justification, for waging a vigorous war of suppression. This overt act on the part of the South cleared the atmosphere for those who had advocated a policy of coercion, and to a large extent lessened the number of those who had talked of peaceable secession.
But all were not of one mind. In Lenawee county, as elsewhere, there were those who denied the right and expediency of the government's action, but they were comparatively few in number, and owing to that fact were the subjects of bitter denunciation, epithets and contemptuous opprobrium. The stigma attached to their names existed in the minds of the thoughtless long after the close of hostilities, but it should not be deemed "treasonable" at this late day to calmly consider historical facts. The writer may be pardoned if, before entering upon the proud record of Lenawee county during those dark days-which will constitute the web and woof of this chapter-he pauses sufficiently long to merely extenuate the action of those "copperheads," as they were derisively called. Criticism of national administrations and their various acts have always been indulged in, whether in peace or war, and such conduct is not a Constitutional .definition of treason. The accepted teachings of a lifetime can not be eradicated from the mind in a single day. The sovereignty of the states had been an accepted doctrine from the time of the adoption of the Constitution; it was claimed by the New England states in 1814; it was recognized in 1820 by the Missouri Compromise, and again by the Compromise of 185o, and when the Ship of State struck the quick-sands of sectionalism, in 1861, patriotic leaders of the North-even those who had bitterly opposed the institution of slavery-thought the time for dismemberment of .the Union had arrived, and advised that the "erring sisters be allowed to depart in peace." Imbued so thoroughly with this doctrine-when President Lincoln issued his proclamation calling for troops and evincing a determination to force the seceding states back into the Union-it was but natural that some would oppose such action, nor did such conduct on their part mark them as traitors or make them any less deserving of respect as citizens. But it is not the purpose of this apparent digression to recall unpleasant memories or argue questions long since settled-we desire merely to record pertinent historical facts. Before leaving the subject, however, and as a proof of the accepted doctrine of unlimited state sovereignty, we will, give the following extract from Henry Cabot Lodge's "Life of Daniel Webster." On page 177, concerning "Webster's Reply to Hayne," Senator Lodge says: "When the Constitution was adopted by the votes of States at Philadelphia and accepted by the votes of States in popular conventions, it is safe to say that there was not a man in the country, from Washington and Hamilton on the one side to George Clinton and George Mason on the other, who regarded the new system as anything but an experiment entered upon by the States, and from which each and every State had the right peaceably to withdraw, a right which was very likely to be exercised."
The news of the firing on Fort Sumter was followed in a few days by the President's call for 75,000 troops. The first mass meeting in Adrian was held at Bidwell's Hall on the evening of April 15. Speeches were made by Dr. P. J. Spalding, Charles M. Croswell, Addison J. Comstock, R. Barnum, A. F. Bixby, J. W. Horner, R. R. Beecher, W. H. Cleveland, Andrew Howell, George Kingsley, and others. Upon the reception of the news of the hostile act in Charleston Harbor, the people of Adrian and the surrounding towns were excited to the highest pitch, and the call for this meeting was signed by Republicans and Democrats, indiscriminately. The universal feeling was that the government must be sustained and the Stars and Stripes were suspended across Maumee street, amid the cheers of the crowd, and bearing on the front the motto : "Anderson and the Union." This first war meeting was the largest public gathering that had ever been held in Adrian up to that time. The feeling was intense, and the love of country was predominant. Dr. P. J. Spalding was president of the meeting, and upon taking the chair said that they all met now upon a common platform. He saw men in the audience whom he had strongly opposed politically, but all this now was to be put aside. The country was in danger and demanded our common efforts in its defense. Charles M. Croswell was called on it and made a brief but eloquent speech. He believed they were all patriotic, Union-loving men, and looked upon their country with a just pride. For his part he ,was ready to say, the government must and shall stand. Let the old flag be maintained that has been to us a symbol of glory so long. Let every man rally under its folds and do or die in its defense. Addison J. Comstock likewise responded. He was glad to hear the chairman say that they had met without distinction of party, impelled by a common love of country., We are now called upon to maintain the government established by the blood of our forefathers. It was now assailed, and the hour for its defense had arrived. Although his locks were gray, if necessary, he was with the supporters of the government to any extent, and wherever and whatever that might be. He believed we were as one man in the support of the government against rattle-snake flags.
At this point in the meeting the chairman was informed that a thousand people were in the street who could not gain admittance to the hall. An adjournment was therefore carried to the street in front of the Brackett House (now the Maumee Hotel), where the crowd blocked up the passage throughout any hearing distance. Patriotic resolutions were adopted and other speeches were listened to with interest after the meeting had adjourned to the street.
But those were days of deeds, and not of words. Upon being loudly called for, Col. D. A. Woodbury appeared. He said they -had all been telling what should be done. He would read a letter as indicative of what he had already done. Thereupon he read a letter which he had written to the governor of the state, in which he tendered his services in any capacity in which he could be useful, as early as the preceding' January. And following this meeting, at noon on April 17, Colonel Woodbury opened a recruiting office for the three months' service, and sixteen enlisted that same afternoon. By 4 o'clock of the following day, fifty-one names had been added. All were imbued with the spirit of patriotism. L. R. Damon, a merchant of Adrian, was in the East, purchasing goods. One of the clerks in his store -desired to enlist in obedience to the call of his country, but felt embarrassed owing to the absence of his employer. He accordingly wrote Mr. Damon,' explaining the circumstances of the case, and he received a reply informing him that he could have his employer's permission to enlist, that his salary would be continued during his absence, and that his position in the store would be given to him again upon his return. On April 18, a paper was put into circulation at Adrian for a subscription to be placed at the disposal of the state government in sending off Michigan's quota of troops. Elihu Clark headed thee Adrian subscription with $i,ooo.
Enlistments and company organizations followed in rapid succession all over the state, and while the Hardee Cadets of Adrian was the only completed organization from Lenawee county in the three months' service the members thereof were not the only troops, as a number of boys residing in the southern part of the county joined Ohio regiments, and still others sought military organizations in neighboring counties in Michigan. Counting these and the members of the company that went from Adrian, it is probable that nearly two hundred men from Lenawee county were in the three months' service. The professions, merchants, mechanics, farmer boys and laborers, all were imbued with the same spirit and promptly laid aside their several vocations and joined in the supreme effort to preserve the Union of States. Gentlemen of the cloth laid aside their shepherd's crooks and went to the front in various capacities. During the four years of bloody warfare Michigan met every call for troops in advance of the time limit, and Lenawee county was always among the first to respond with her quota.
While the "boys" were at the front the citizens at home were not idle, and the devoted mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts, imbued with the same spirit which had taken their loved ones from them, assisted in organizing relief associations. There was much outward show of sympathy and interest during the first few months, but by the following year, after the disaster of the Peninsular campaign, matters settled down to a war basis and sentiment was banished in the interest of helpful needs. Public and private donations to the Federal cause were kept up until the final capitulation at Appomattox.
It would be impossible to trace the record of Lenawee county's valiant soldiers through the ranging fortunes of four years of bloody war; neither would space permit, were it possible. Without disparagement to the heroic services of any, it shall be the purpose of these pages to mention the organizations, which, as a whole, are more closely connected with Lenawee county than other military organizations. While other regiments may have achieved equal honors on the bloody fields, it is morally certain that none surpassed those hereinafter mentioned in the performance of stern duty.
The First infantry in the three months' service, was organized at Detroit, and as before stated, contained one Lenawee county company. On the formation of the regiment, this company received the designation of the letter "K," and. its officers-all Adrian men-were as follows: Captain, William H. Graves; first lieutenant, John W. Horner; second lieutenant, William House. The lieutenant-colonel of the regiment was Loren L. Comstock, also of Adrian. The regiment left the state May 13, for Washington, led the advance into Virginia, and on May 24, entered and took possession of Alexandria, capturing 15o cavalry. It was assigned to the Second brigade of Heintzelman's division and fought at the first battle of Bull Run, charging one of the strongest of the enemy's batteries four times, under a heavy fire, but was compelled to retire with a loss of ninety-five in killed, wounded and missing, the loss. being one-eighth of its total numbers. Its dead were found -nearest the enemy's works. The regiment returned to the state on the expiration of its term of service and was mustered out Aug. 7, 1861, having lost only three officers, who-died of wounds, three men killed in action and three died of disease.
The Second Michigan infantry was recruited and called into service as a three months' regiment, and was rendezvoused as such, but on instructions from the War Department, it was reorganized and enlisted for three years, allowing those who did not desire to enter the service for that term to withdraw. In that regiment there were two companies from Lenawee county-the Hudson artillery, which enlisted as an infantry company and became known as Company B, was organized at Hudson, and the Adrian Guard, which became known as Company D, was from Adrian. The Hudson company was commanded by Capt. Reuben A. Beach; first lieutenant, Cyrus E. Bigelow, and second lieutenant, Tilson C. Barden, all of Hudson, while the Adrian company was officered by William Humphrey, Frank M. Wood, and William L. Burlingame, as captain, first lieutenant and second lieutenant, respectively. Captain Humphrey was afterward successively promoted until he became colonel of the regiment. The regiment was organized at Detroit, in April, 1861, and was mustered in on May 25, being the first three years' regiment to be enrolled from the state. It left for the front on June 5, and reported at Washington. It was engaged at Blackburn's Ford, and covered the retreat from Bull Run three days later. It remained near Alexandria during the fall and winter, with Col. O. M. Poe in command, its original colonel, Israel B. Richardson, having been made a brigadier-general. It was assigned to Berry's brigade, Kearny's division, Heintzelman's corps, for the Peninsular campaign; was in the siege of Yorktown, and was engaged at Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Charles City Crossroads, and Malvern Hill, its losses being 137 in killed, wounded and missing. It was in the hottest of the fight at Williamsburg, forcing back twice its numbers at the point of the bayonet. At Fair Oaks, 500 of the regiment charged ten- times their .number, "stopping them in mid-career." The regiment was at Harrison's Landing until Aug. 15, was tinder furious fire at the second Bull Run, repulsing several cavalry charges, and was also in the severe engagement at Chantilly. It was in numerous expeditions and reconnaissances until the last of November, and was then transferred to the First brigade, Burnside's division, Ninth corps, being held in reserve at Fredericksburg. It moved to Newport News, Va., in February, 1863, and to Bardstown, Ky., in March. In June it joined Grant's army in Mississippi and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. It was in the several engagements at Jackson, in July, including a skirmish in which it drove the enemy from his rifle-pits and through his reserve. It moved to Milldale, then to Nicholasville, Ky., and on Aug. 30 to Crab Orchard. It then moved to Eastern Tennessee, and was in the engagements at Blue Springs, Loudon, Lenoir's Station, and Campbell's Station, and assisted in the defense of Knoxville. The regiment performed heroic service at Fort Sanders and at Thurley's Ford, after which it camped at Blain's Cross-roads until the middle of January, 1864. It rejoined its corps of the Army of the Potomac, May 5, and participated in the battle of the Wilderness. At Spottsylvania Court House it recaptured some guns lost by a New York battery and drove back a brigade. It was engaged at Oxford, North Anna, Totopotomy, Bethesda Church, and Cold Harbor, and in the first assaults on Petersburg, in June, it lost 22. killed, 143 wounded and 6 missing. In the attack following the springing of the mine, the regiment lost 6 killed, 14 wounded and 37 missing. It was engaged at the Weldon railroad and Poplar, Spring Church, and was then in camp near Peebles' House until, Oct. 27, when it' fought at Hatcher's Run, and was then in the trenches before Petersburg during the winter. It participated in the defense of Fort Stedman, in March, 1865, sustaining heavy loss, and aided in the capture of Petersburg in April. It was mustered out at Washington, July 28, 1865.
The Fourth regiment of infantry was recruited mostly on a line running from Monroe county along through the southern tier of counties westward, including St. Joseph county, and this regiment contained three companies from Lenawee county-the Hudson Volunteers, the Adrian Volunteers and the Tecumseh Volunteers. In the list of field and staff officers in the original organization appear the names of the following Lenawee county men Dwight A. Woodbury, of Adrian, as colonel; David P. Chamberlain, of Hudson, assistant surgeon; Henry A. Grannis, of Adrian, quartermaster, and Henry N. Strong, of Adrian, chaplain. The Adrian Volunteers became Company B in the regiment, with James H. Cole as captain, Jeremiah D. Slocuni as first lieutenant, and James E. Avery as second lieutenant, all of Adrian. Of the Hudson Volunteers, which became Company F, Samuel DeGolver was captain; Simon B. Preston, first lieutenant, and Joseph L. Smith, second lieutenant, all of Hudson. Of the Tecumseh Volunteers, which was designated as Company G, David D. Marshall, of Tecumseh, was captain; George Monteith, of Adrian, was first lieutenant, and Jeptha W. Beers, of Tecumseh, was second lieutenant.
This regiment was organized at Adrian in May, 1861, and was mustered in June 20. On a beautiful spot of ground near the regimental quarters, which were known as "Camp Williams," and located in the suburbs of the city, on June 2r, and in the presence of thousands of people, the regiment in full dress was formed in a hollow square, inside of which Mrs. W. S. Wilcox, in behalf of the ladies of Adrian, and in a few well chosen words, presented the command with an elegant regimental flag. It was received by the men with cheers, and in their behalf was acknowledged in a brief, but fitting speech by Col. D. A. Woodbury. Patriotic speeches. were also made by Charles M. Croswell and Hon. Zachariah Chandler. The regiment left Adrian June 25, and reported at Washington, where it was engaged in defence of the city during the summer and encamped at Miner's Hill, Va., during the winter. It was attached to Griffin's brigade, Morell's division, Porter's corps, and participated in the siege of Yorktown. It was also engaged at New Bridge in May, fording the Chickahominy under a heavy fire and driving off a superior force, for which it received high praise, General McClellan telegraphing that the Fourth Michigan had "covered itself with glory." It was then engaged at Hanover Court House, Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Savage Station, Turkey Bend, White Oak Swamp, and Malvern Hill, where Colonel Woodbury was killed. In six days' fighting the regiment lost 53 killed, 1444 wounded, and 52 missing. It was next engaged at Gainesville, the second Bull Run, Antietam and Shepherdstown Ford, where its brigade forded the Potomac under battery fire, driving off the enemy and capturing the guns. In December the regiment was at Fredicksburg, where a ridge was taken tinder terrific fire, with a less of 9 killed, 41 wounded and 1 missing. It was in camp near Falmouth during the winter, engaged in the battle of Chancellorsville, remained at Kelly's Ford until June 13, and then marched through Maryland and Pennsylvania to Gettysburg, where it took a prominent part, sharing in the fiercest of the fight. Colonel Jeffords, who then commanded the regiment, was killed, and the loss of the regiment was 28 killed, 84 wounded, with many missing and prisoners. It followed the Confederate army southward, fighting at Williamsport, Wapping Heights, Culpeper, Brandy Station, Bristoe Station and Mine Run, and was on railroad guard duty at Bealeton from Dec. i until April 30, 1864. It was in the battle of the Wilderness, where Colonel Lumbard was killed, fought at Laurel Hill, the Po River, Spottsylvania, the Ny River, the North Anna, Jericho Mills, Totopotomy, Magnolia Swamp and Bethesda Church, and then proceeded to Petersburg, where it took part in the early assaults on the works. On June 1g it started for home and was mustered out on the 3oth, with 135 men and 22 officers present, 129 having re-enlisted as veterans. The regiment was re-organized during the summer, eight companies being recruited, with Col. J. W. Hall commanding. It was mustered in at Adrian, Oct 14, left the state Oct. 22, reached Decatur, Ala., on the 28th, participated in the defense of that town and was then stationed at Whitesboro. It was engaged at New Market, was then ordered to Murfreesboro, where it was engaged in railroad guard and picket duty until Jan. 15, 1865, when it moved to Huntsville, Ala., and was assigned to the Third brigade, Third division, Fourth corps. It moved through Tennessee during April, reaching Nashville on the 27th, and on June 16 it moved for New Orleans, where it was joined by the detachment of the old Fourth. On July 6 it took steamer for Texas, reached Green Lake on the 11th, and remained there in camp for two months, losing many men from the effects of the poor water and very hot weather. On Sept. 1x it started for San Antonio, 170 miles; reached Salada creek on the 24th, remained. there for two months on provost duty in the. city and at various points until May 26, x866, when it was mustered out at Hudson.
The war had been in progress nearly six months and the "before breakfast job" of the three months men had been prolonged to nearly twice their term of service, and up to this date the Confederates had been successful on nearly every field. An enlistment for three years' service at this time meant more than a brief term of a few months. The first spontaneous outburst had been succeeded by a candid and thoughtful consideration of the momentous task, with the record of past events pointing to possible, failure. This was the condition of affairs when the gallant Eleventh was raised in response to the President's first call for 300,000 troops. for a period of "three years, or during the war." Recruiting stations were established in the southern tier of counties and the headquarters of the embryo regiment were located at White Pigeon. Company encampments were opened in other places. Enlistments moved along slowly, but by Sept. 24 the regimental organization was complete and it was mustered into the service of the United States.. The work of drilling and equipping the regiment had been well attended to and by the time it was ordered to the field tile discipline, drill and apparent efficiency of the regiment were alike creditable to the officers and the men. In this regiment there were two companies from Lenawee county-Companies F and K. The officers of Company F-were: Captain, Sylvester B. Smith, of Morenci; first lieutenant, Joseph Wilson, of Hudson; second lieutenant, Abraham Harper, of Hudson. Company K was officered as follows : Captain, William W. Phillips, of Adrian; first lieutenant, Patrick H. Keegan, of Deerfield; second lieutenant, Ephraim L. French, of Adrian. The regiment left the state Dec. 9, and was stationed at Bardstown, Ky., during the winter. In the spring of 1862 it was engaged in railroad guard duty, and in July pursued Morgan's cavalry through Kentucky. On Aug. 13, it joined in repelling an attack made by a considerable force tinder Morgan. It was then stationed at Nashville and assigned to Negley's division. It joined a foraging expedition and reconnaissance, having three engagements with guerrillas, and assisted in building forts and general fortifications. It was then engaged at Stone's River. where it joined the 'Nineteenth Illinois in charging a fierce assault and driving back the enemy after he had broken the right wing. Its losses were 32 killed, 79 wounded and 29 missing. It was then detached for provost duty at Murfreesboro. It participated in a sharp skirmish at Elk River, in July, and then remained in camp at Decherd until September, when it joined the advance into Georgia, with the Second brigade, Second division, Fourteenth corps. It was then engaged at Davis' Cross-roads; and covered the retreat of Negley's and Baird's divisions from Dug Gap. It was in the hottest of the fight at Chickamauga, its brigade holding one of the most important positions against largely superior forces until night and being the last to leave the field. The regiment's loss in this engagement was 85. Where "Thomas stood like a rock," it did its full share and received his compliments. It was in the siege at Chattanooga, in the main and successful charge of Missionary Ridge, under heavy fire, and always claiming to have been the first to reach the works. It was then in the pursuit of the enemy, charging his rear-guard and assisting in capturing "Ferguson's Battery," with caissons and horses. It was on outpost duty at Rossville from Dec. 2, 1863, to March 15, 1864, and then rejoined its old brigade at Graysville. It entered on the Atlanta campaign tinder General Sherman, fought at Buzzard Roost, Resaca. and New Hope Church, where for eight days it was tinder almost continual fire, but when the enemy evacuated his works the regiment joined in the pursuit. It fought at Kenesaw Mountain, Ruff's Station and Peachtree Creek. then moved toward Atlanta, and in the battle of Utoy Creek participated in a charge and took one line of defense, with a loss of 3o. It was ordered to Chattanooga, Aug. 27, for muster out, but joined in pursuit of Wheeler's forces, marching to Murfreesboro and Huntsville, Ala. On Sept. 18 it started for home, and it was mustered out Sept. 30, 1864. The Eleventh was reorganized at Jackson, in the winter of 1864. Four companies left for Nashville March 4, 1865, and the other six on the 18th, under command of Col. Patrick H. Keegan, of Deerfield. , On April. 8 the regiment was ordered to Chattanooga 'and assigned to the. Third brigade, Second separate division, Army of the Cumberland. Three weeks later it was sent to East Tennessee, four companies being placed on duty guarding the Chattanooga & Knoxville railroad at intervals of fifteen to twenty miles apart, and the other six companies were stationed at Cleveland. In June. the regiment was ordered to Knoxville for guard duty, and on Aug. 3 to Nashville, where it was mustered out Sept. 16.
Twenty-eight men from Lenawee county served in the Twelfth Michigan infantry, the greater number of them as members of Company F, of which Samuel E. Graves, of Adrian, was second lieutenant. William H. Graves, also of Adrian, was made lieutenant-colonel of the regiment at its organization and later was promoted to colonel. The Twelfth received its baptism of fire at the battle of Shiloh, and its career was an honorable one to the close of the war.
Seventy-six Lenawee county men found a regimental home with the Fifteenth Michigan infantry, representatives of the county being found principally in Companies H and K. Horace P. Woodward, of Blissfield, was assistant surgeon of the regiment; Isaac N. Stout, of Deerfield, was second lieutenant of Company H, and George R. S. Baker, of Blissfield, was first lieutenant of Company K. This regiment was organized at Monroe and was mustered in March 20, 1862. It acted with conspicuous gallantry at the battle of Shiloh, and during its entire term of service acquitted itself in a manner which reflected credit upon the state.
Ten Lenawee county citizens became members of Company D, in the Sixteenth Michigan infantry, of which company Theodore S. Mahan, of Adrian, was first lieutenant. This regiment was organized at Camp Backus, Detroit, and was known as "Stockton's Independent Regiment." It was mustered in Sept. 8, 18Gf, entered the scene of hostilities in Virginia, and throughout the various campaigns in the Old Dominion this regiment was never known to waver in the discharge of duty. -
The Seventeenth Michigan infantry was organized at Detroit and contained one company-Company A-of Lenawee county troops. Company A was officered by Lorin L. Comstock (afterward lieutenant-colonel of the regiment) as captain, John S. Vreeland as first lieutenant, and Richard A. Watts as second lieutenant, all of these officers being residents of Adrian. The regiment, which later became known as the "Stonewall Regiment," was mustered in Aug. 21, 1862, and left the state on the 27th for Washington, where it was assigned to the First brigade, First division, Ninth corps, for the Maryland campaign. It was first engaged at South Mountain, where it won high honors, charging over a stone wall and scattering a strong force in its front (from which act it received its sobriquet), capturing 300 prisoners and driving the enemy down the slope of the mountain. General Willcox characterized this as "a feat that may vie with any recorded in the annals of war." Its loss in this engagement was 27 killed and 114 wounded. In the battle of Antietam it lost 18 killed and 87 wounded. It then moved to a position near Falmouth and was present, but not engaged, at Fredericksburg. It moved to Newport News in February, 1863, on March 19 to Baltimore, thence to Bardstown, Ky., on April 3 to Lebanon, and on the 29th to Columbia. In June it reinforced Grant at Vicksburg, being engaged there until July 4. It was then in the siege of Jackson, returned to Kentucky in August, and joined the movements of the Army of the Ohio in East Tennessee. It was engaged at Blue Springs, Loudon, Lenoir's Station and Campbell's Station, and as part of the Third brigade, First division, Ninth corps, assisted in the defense of Knoxville, being stationed in Fort Sanders. After the siege it encamped at Blain's Cross-roads until it joined the Army of the Potomac, near Warrenton Junction, Va., in March. It was in the battles of the Wilderness, Ny River and Spottsylvania, where it occupied the crest of a hill for which the enemy was making, just as the latter came up the other slope, repulsing them handsomely. Its succeeding movements were of the most gallant nature, being in the terrific assaults at the "bloody angle," where it lost 23 killed, 73 wounded, and 93 prisoners, out of 225 engaged. On May 16 it was detailed as engineer troops, and through the rest of the campaign fought at the North Anna, Bethesda Church, Cord Harbor, Petersburg, the Crater,, the Weldon Railroad, Reams' Station, Poplar Spring Church, Pegram's Farm, the Boydton Road, and Hatcher's Run. It remained near the Appomattox river during the winter, and in the attack of the enemy on Fort Stedman, in March, 1865, the regiment as skirmishers repelled those of the enemy, capturing sixty-five prisoners. It was engaged at Petersburg until the surrender, and was then on guard and provost duty until April 24. It was then ordered to Washington, participated in the Grand Review, and was mustered out at Tenallytown, June 3, 1865.
The Eighteenth Michigan infantry may be justly styled "the Lena-wee county regiment," as five companies of that organization were raised in this county. Among the field and staff officers at the time of organization appear the names of John W. Horner, of Adrian, as major, and Horace P. Woodward, of Blissfield, as assistant surgeon. The regiment was later officered by John IV. I-Iorner as colonel, Edwin M. Hubbard, of Hudson, as lieutenant-colonel, and James D. Hinckley, of Adrian, as major. Companies A, B, C, E, and I were raised in Lenawee county, and at the time of muster-in they were officered as follows : Company A-Captain, Edwin M. Hubbard, of Hudson; first lieutenant, Myron IV. Reed, of Hudson; second lieutenant, James S. Riddle, of Hudson. Company B-Captain, James D. Hinckley, of Adrian; first lieutenant, John Shelt, of Rome; second lieutenant, George H. Wells, of Tecumseh. Company C-Captain, John W. Horner, of Adrian; first lieutenant, Charles R. Miller, of Adrian; second lieutenant, Stephen A. Denison, of Madison. Company E-Captain, Charles D. Stevens, of Tecumseh; first lieutenant, William A. Weatherhead, of Tecumseh; second lieutenant, Edwin H. Hoag, of Tecumseh. Company I-Captain, David A. Dodge, of Tecumseh; first lieutenant, William C. Moore, of Medina; second lieutenant, Isaac O. Savage, of Fairfield. The reverses of McClellan on the Peninsula, causing a general alarm for the cause of the Union, induced the President to make his call of July 2, 1862, for 30o,000 men, 11,686 being the quota of Michigan. The regiments called for were apportioned to Congressional districts, the Eighteenth being assigned to the First, the recruiting, however, to be made in the counties of Hillsdale, Lenawee, and Monroe, as Wayne, the other county of the district, assumed the task of raising the Twenty-fourth regiment alone. The recruitment of the Eighteenth commenced July 15, 1862, and on Aug. 26 it was mustered into the service of the United States. On Sept. 4, the day the regiment left its camp at Hillsdale, and while -waiting at Toledo on the march to the front, an elegant flag of the finest material and workmanship, arrived by express, having been ordered made by the Hon. Henry Waldron, who had been charged by the governor with raising the regiment. It was presented by Mr. Waldron in one of his best speeches, to which an eloquent response was made by Maj. J. W. Horner, who assured the donor, on behalf of the regiment, that it should never be dishonored while in their hands. The regiment reported for duty at Cincinnati, and was stationed at Lexington, Ky., from Nov. 1, 1862, until Feb. 21, 1863. It then moved to Danville and was with the forces that retreated from that place on the 24th, skirmishing with those of Pegram as they left. On the 28th the regiment joined in pursuit of Pegram, making a long rough march to Btick creek. It returned to Stanford, then moved to Lebanon, and thence to Nashville, where it was employed as provost guard from Nov. 1, 1863, to June i1, 1864. Ordered south, it reached Decatur, Ala., in June, and was placed on garrison and scouting duty. It was a part of the force which surprised, Patterson's brigade of cavalry at Pond Springs, capturing their camp equipage, wagons, and commissary stores, and in July it assisted in routing the same brigade at Courtland, being the only infantry engaged at either time. It left Decatur in September to reinforce the garrison at Athens, reaching there just in time to repel Roddey's command. It joined in pursuit of Wheeler, overtaking and skirmishing with his rear-guard, at Shoal Creek, and then returned to Decatur. A detachment of 231, enroute to reinforce the garrison at Athens, was attacked by a force under Forrest, numbering about 4,000, when within two miles of Athens, and after five hours' desperate fighting was compelled to surrender. The regiment participated in the successful defense of Decatur against Hood's army, a detachment dislodging a body of sharpshooters in rifle-pits near one of the forts and capturing 115 prisoners. It remained at Decatur until Nov. 25, and then moved to Stevenson, where it was engaged in building fortifications until Dec. 1g. It was then ordered back to Decatur, where it was on garrison duty until Jan. 11, 1865, when it proceeded to Huntsville for post duty.. It was ordered to Nashville in June, and was mustered out June 26, 1865.
It was found, after the organization of the several Congressional District regiments had been completed, that more companies had been officered than had been provided for, and the Twenty-fifth was constituted from the surplus. But this having failed to supply places for all the surplus companies which had been offered, the Twenty-sixth was organized and ordered into rendezvous at Jackson. The quartermaster of the Twenty-sixth was Charles E. Crane, of Adrian, and Company F, of the regiment, was almost entirely recruited from Lenawee county. Lemuel Saviers, of Franklin, was captain; Edmond Richardson, of Adrian, was first lieutenant, and Morris Roberts, of Tecumseh, was second lieutenant. The regiment left the state, Dec. 13, 1862, reported at Washington, was assigned to provost duty at Alexandria, and was thus employed until April, 1863, when it was sent to Suffolk, Va., for defense. On-June 20, it moved to Yorktown, marched to the Chickahominy, then returned to Yorktown and proceeded to New York to maintain peace in the draft riots. It joined the Army of the Potomac, Oct. 13, was attached to the First brigade, First division, Second corps, and came to be recognized as the skirmish regiment of the division. It was engaged at Mine Run, and then went into winter quarters at Stevensburg. It was at the battle of the Wilderness, part of the time in reserve, and charged Stuart's dismounted cavalry on May 7, capturing a number of prisoners and important dispatches. It was in the engagements at Corbin's Bridge, the Ny River, the Po River and Spottsylvania, where it participated in the charge of the Second corps when the works were carried in a hand-to-hand fight with the bayonet, the _colors of the Twentysixth being the first planted. It also captured two brass guns and the gunners, its loss being 27 killed, 98 wounded, and 14 missing. It was next engaged at the North Anna, Totopotomy and Cold Harbor, and was in the assault at Petersburg, June 16, in which the first line was carried. It fought at the Weldon railroad, was engaged at Deep Bottom, where its brigade drove the enemy and captured four guns, the Twenty-sixth leading in skirmish line. The regiment attacked double its numbers the following day and drove them for half a mile. In August, it was engaged at Strawberry Plains, White Oak Swamp, and Reams' Station, where it assisted in repelling repeated assaults and took part in the charge when the works taken by the enemy, were retaken. It remained before Petersburg during the winter, and in March, 1865, charged the enemy's works at Peebles' Farm, capturing a portion of them. It was in action at Hatcher's Run, the Boydton Road, White Oak Road, Sutherland's Station, Amelia Springs, Deatonsville, Sailor's Creek, High Bridge and Farmville, and was,at Appomattox when Lee surrendered, having captured over 40o prisoners between March 28 and April 9, and lost 6o in killed and wounded. It was ordered to Washington May 2, was in the Grand Review, and was mustered out at Bailey's Cross-Roads June 4.
Continued threatenings of raids by Confederate refugees in Canada, together with an outspoken, unnatural sympathy existing among the people on the Canadian border in their behalf, produced at times much uneasiness as to the safety of cities along the American lines. As a result of these conditions, the Thirtieth Michigan infantry was raised, being mustered into the United States service Jan. 9, 1865. Samuel E. Graves, of Adrian, was major of the regiment, and Lyman H. Dean, of Morenci, was chaplain, while Company D was almost entirely composed of Lenawee county men. David D. Marshall, of Tecumseh, was captain of this company, and Simeon M. Babcock, of Adrian, was the first lieutenant. The officers of the regiment had all seen service at the front and many of the men in the ranks had participated in active warfare. The regiment did not leave the state, Company D being stationed at St. Clair. The men were mustered out June 30, 1865.
There were twelve Lenawee county men enlisted in the Michigan regiment known as "Engineers and Mechanics," and Daniel M. Moore, of Rome, was first lieutenant of Company M in that regiment: Although not engaged in many battles as a fighting regiment, it was often under fire while engaged in constructing fortifications, roads, and defenses for the army, or in the destruction of railroads and public works used by the enemy. The regiment was organized at Marshall, was mustered in, Oct. 29, 1861, and was mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.
In the artillery branch of the service Lenawee county was also represented. Battery H was commanded by Capt. Samuel DeGolyer of Hudson, and at least a dozen of Lenawee county men were among the members of that artillery company. Captain DeGolyer received a wound May 28, 1863, in the siege of Vicksburg, which caused his death on Aug. 8. The battery was mustered in March 6, 1862, and was mustered out at Jackson, July 22, 1865.
Battery I was almost entirely from Lenawee county, and was officered by Jabez J. Daniels as captain, and Addison A. Kidder as first lieutenant, both of Hudson. The battery was organized at Detroit and was mustered in Aug. 20, 1862. It left the state Dec. 4, joined the Army of the Potomac, and was first engaged at Aldie, Va., in April, 1863. It participated at Gettysburg, then moved to Culpeper Court House, and was ordered to Nashville in October, remaining there in reserve until March 7, 1864, when it was ordered to Whiteside. It participated in the Georgia campaign, engaged the enemy at Cassville, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kolb's Farm, Marietta, Peachtree Creek, reached Atlanta July 27, and took part in the siege until Aug. 25. It was engaged at Turner's Ferry in August, and remained at Atlanta until Nov. 1, when it was ordered to Chattanooga and mounted as horse artillery until ordered home. It was mustered out at Jackson, July 14, 1865.
In the First Michigan cavalry there were nearly a score of Lenawee county men, and Jabez J. Daniels, of Hudson, entered the service as second lieutenant of Company E, of this regiment. It was mustered into the service Sept. 13, 1861, and performed distinguished service until mustered out at Salt Lake City, Utah, March 1o, 1866, having been transferred to the Indian country after the surrender at Appomattox.
The Third Michigan cavalry had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids, and almost an entire company was recruited in Lenawee county. Robert O. Selfridge, of Tecumseh, was adjutant of the regiment, and Company K was commanded by Capt. Collins Davis, of Tecumseh, while Amos M. Adams, of Adrian, was second lieutenant. The regiment was mustered in Nov. r, 1861. It left the state Nov. 28, was stationed at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, during the winter, and then joined Pope's movement against New Madrid and Island No. Io. It was engaged at Farmington, Miss., and in the siege of Corinth,. then joined Grant's forces in the campaign of Mississippi, and fought at Spangler's Mills, Bay Spring, and luka, where it performed efficient work. In October it was engaged at the battles of Corinth and the Hatchie River. During the remainder of the year it was in actions at Hudsonville, Holly Springs, Lumpkin's Mill, Oxford, and Coffeeville. In November, Company K made a daring trip. Communication between Grant and Sherman had been cut off by the destruction of railway and telegraph lines, the enemy's pickets extending to Memphis, and regiments and brigades were unable to open them or clear the way for a dash. Company K advanced from LaGrange to Moscow, made a circuit of seventeen miles by night, attacked and captured the pickets at Somerville, and charged through a regiment. Finding the bridge burned at Wolf river, the company plunged into and across the stream, and being taken for Confederates pushed through a brigade and reached Sherman's headquarters at Memphis. The regiment was engaged at Brownsville, in January, and at Clifton in February. At the latter point, sixty men of Company K crossed the river after nightfall in an old fiat-bottom boat and captured the Confederate Colonel Newsom, three of his captains, four lieutenants, and sixtyone enlisted men, with horses, arms and equipments. The regiment was in engagements at Jackson and Panola, in July, and at Grenada in August, was in the advance, destroying over sixty locomotives and more than 9oo cars. In October it participated at Byhalia and Wyatt's Ford, on the Tallahatchie river. It was engaged in scouting and numerous expeditions during November and December, meeting the enemy at Ripley, Orizaba, Ellistown, Purdy, and Jack's Creek, and on Jan. 1, 1864, went into winter quarters at La Grange, Tenn. It was later ordered to St. Louis, where it was on provost duty for about two months. It reported at Little Rock, May 24, and was engaged in scouting. It assisted in driving Shelby beyond the river and in dispersing guerrillas. During November, 1864, and February, 1865, it garrisoned Brownsville, and in its' scouting expeditions collected large droves of cattle, supplying nearly all the beef required for the Department of Arkansas. It, was assigned to the First brigade, First division, Seventh corps, which, on March 14, was transferred to the military division of West Mississippi, and ordered to Mobile, where it engaged in the siege. After the fall of that point the regiment was employed in outpost duty. On the surrender of the enemy's forces east of the Mississippi, the regiment was selected as escort of Major-General Canby, and received the formal surrender of General Taylor's army. In May the regiment removed to Baton Rouge, La., whet e it joined the Texas expedition and reached San Antonio Aug. It was engaged in garrison and escort duty and along the Mexican frontier until mustered out at San Antonio, Feb. 15, 1866. 'Up to November, 1863, the regiment had captured 2,ioo prisoners, and had marched io,8oo miles.
Company F of the Fourth Michigan cavalry was a Lenawee county company and was officered by Richard B. Robbins as captain, Walter B. Anderson as first lieutenant, and Tunis W. Henion as second lieutenant, all of Adrian. Captain Robbins afterward was promoted to major of the regiment. The regiment was organized at Detroit, and was mustered in Aug. 29, 1862. It left the state Sept. 26, for Louisville, thence to Tennessee, and was engaged at Stanford, Gallatin, Lebanon, Rural Hill, Baird's Mill, Hollow Tree Gap, Wilson's Creek Road, Franklin, Laurel Hill, Wilson's Creek, La Vergne, Jefferson Pike Bridge, Nashville Pike and Stone's River, before the close of the year. It was in successful charges at Stone's River against superior forces. In January aid February, 1863, it fought at La Vergne, Manchester Pike, Harpeth River, Cumberland Shoals, Bradyville, Woodbury, Dover, Charlotte and Auburn, and at 'Liberty drove Morgan's cavalry for six miles. It was next engaged at Unionville, Thompson's Station, Rutherford Creek, Duck River, Prosperity Church, Liberty, Snow Hill, McMinnville, Statesville, Alexandria, Wartrace and Middletown. At the last named place it charged and drove the enemy, capturing and destroying a large quantity of ordnance stores and camp equipage and the standard of the First Alabama cavalry. At Shelbyville it assisted in a charge when 599 prisoners and three pieces of artillery were taken, and the enemy was driven out in confusion, the Union forces being 1,500 and the enemy's over 4,000. A large body was driven into the river, from which over Zoo bodies were taken. Through the summer of 1863, the regiment was engaged at Hickory Creek, Tullahoma, Rock Island, Sparta, Sperry's Mill, Smith's Cross-roads, Reed's Bridge, the battle of Chickamauga, Rossville and Cotton Port. At Chickamauga its brigade, with less than I,ooo men in line, fought 7,000 from 7 o'clock in the morning until 5 o'clock in the evening, falling back in order for five miles. It was in action at Smith's Cross-roads, Hill Creek, and McMinnville, in October, and was in camp at Maysville from the latter part of October until Nov. 17. It fought at Chattanooga and at Missionary Ridge, and at Cleveland captured 9o wagons, 260 prisoners, 480 mules, and 275 hogs. It burned the railroad bridge at the Etowah river, and the depot, iron works, and rolling mill at Cleveland. From January to March, 1864, it took part in the operations about Tunnel Hill and on the Dalton road, and remained in camp at the Etowah until March 29, when it was ordered to Nashville and attached to the Second cavalry division. In May it defeated a brigade at Farmer's Bridge, fought at Arundel Creek, and was surrounded at Kingston, but cut its way out. On the Atlanta campaign it fought at Dallas, Villa Rica, Lost Mountain, Big Shanty, McAfee's Cross-roads, Noonday Creek and Kenesaw Mountain. At Latimer's Mill on Noonday Creek a force of less than 1,ooo received the attack of 4,500 of Wheeler's cavalry and fell back, but being reinforced by three regiments the enemy was in turn repulsed. The Fourth Michigan repulsed three charges by two regiments and gained new laurels. It was engaged at Roswell, Lebanon Mills, Stone Mountain, Covington, Flatrock, in the siege of Atlanta, Fair Oaks, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, and McDonough. .At Jonesboro the entire division was surrounded and flinty s brigade, to which the Fourth was attached, made one of, the greatest charges of the war, broke the enclosing lines in superb manner, thus opening a way for Kilpatrick's forces to break from the cordon, and captured three stands of colors. After the fall of Atlanta the regiment was engaged at Roswell, Sweetwater, Nose's Creek, Lost Mountain, -Few Hope Church, Stilesboro, Rome and Blue Pond. In the latter part of October it was ordered to Nashville, thence to Louisville, where it was newly .mounted and equipped. It marched to Gravelly Springs, arriving Jan. 25, 1865, and remained there until early in march. Moving south from Eastport, it became engaged at Selma, Ala., where it joined in the assault and captured the works under terrific fire, Colonel Minty being the first to enter alive. The result of this daring affair was the capture of a strongly fortified city, nearly 100 pieces of artillery, 2,700 prisoners and a large amount of ammunition and stores. On May 7, Lieutenant-Colonel Pritchard was ordered to proceed with the regiment and picket the Ocmulgee river for the purpose of preventing the escape of Jefferson Davis, who was supposed to be in that section, and with 135 picked men he was instrumental in capturing the Confederate leader. On May 21 the regiment was ordered to Nashville, and it was mustered out July r, x865.
About fifteen Lenawee county men served in the Fifth Michigan cavalry, which was organized at Detroit and mustered into the service Aug. 30, 1862. Stephen B. Mann, of Palmyra, was first lieutenant in Company G, of this regiment. This command served valiantly until the close of the war, and then was sent to the far West, being finally mustered out in Utah.
Company B, of the Ninth Michigan cavalry, was raised almost entirely in Lenawee county, and was officered by Samuel Morey, of Rome, as captain, and James R. Cairns, of Cambridge, as first lieutenant. The chaplain of this regiment was William Benson, of Adrian, and Cyrus D. Roys, of Hudson, was first lieutenant of Company F. This regiment was organized at Coldwater and was mustered in May ig, 1863. It left the state by detachments May 18, 2o and 25, being ordered to Covington, Ky. It participated in engagements at Triplett's Bridge, Lebanon, Salvisa, Cummings Ferry, Buffington Island and Salineville. At Buffington Island it aided in the capture of 50o prisoners, three pieces of artillery, and a large amount of small arms and equipments. It was then ordered to Tennessee and was engaged at London, Cumberland Gap, Carter's Station, Zollicoffer, and Leesburg. At Cumberland Gap it took. the advance, burned a large mill, drove the enemy from his moun-. tain stronghold, and assisted in the capture of 2,600 men and thirteen pieces of artillery. It was engaged at Blue Springs and Rheatown, scouted about Henderson during November, and in December was engaged at Knoxville, Morristown, Russellville, Bean's Station, Rutledge, Dandridge and Mossy Creek. It removed from Dandridge Jan. 16, 1864, and was engaged at Kinsboro's Cross-roads, Dandridge, Fair Garden, Sevierville, and Strawberry Plains. It encamped near Nicholasville, Ky., and was in several skirmishes in the early part of the year. In June it was engaged at Cynthiana, charging the enemy and taking 300 prisoners; 500 horses, a number of cattle and a large number of small arms, the enemy being routed and driven in large numbers into the Licking river. The regiment participated in the siege of Atlanta, Aug. I to Sept. 3, being on picket and train guard duty. It was engaged at Stone Mountain and Decatur, and was on foraging expeditions during the month of October. It was engaged in numerous small skirmishes with guerrillas and bushwhackers. It was with Sherman's army before Atlanta in November, was engaged in several skirmishes, including one at Lovejoy's Station, and on the 17th made a forced march of thirty miles, capturing thirty prisoners. It was in a skirmish at Griswoldville, burning the town, arsenal, railroad depot and train, and capturing seventy-five prisoners. It was engaged at Macon, Milledgeville, Louisville, Waynesboro, Cypress Swamp, Savannah, Arnold's Plantation and Altamaha Bridge. At Waynesboro it charged Wheeler's command, driving it from the field and capturing zoo prisoners, for which it received special notice. It was in camp at Savannah from Dec. i8, 1864, until Jan. a7, 1865, and then joined the Carolina campaign, being engaged at the Salkahatchie, White Pond, Aiken, Lexington, Broad River Bridge and Phillips' Cross-roads, where it fought the enemy for three hours. It burned the stables and a grist mill at Wadesboro after a skirmish; was in a skirmish at Solemn Grove, participated at Averasboro, driving the enemy before it; was then in constant skirmish, the battle of Bentonville, and in actions on the Raleigh & Smithfield railroad. It was' in camp at Concord from May 14 until mustered out, July 9, 1865.
The Eleventh Michigan cavalry contained a large number of men from Lenawee county. William L. M. Osborn, of Adrian, was second lieutenant of Company B; John Edwards and W. Baker Thompson, both of Hudson, were first lieutenant and second lieutenant, respectively, of Company D ; James E. Merritt, of Tecumseh, was captain of Company G, and Company H, which was distinctly a Lenawee county company, was officered as follows : Captain, Henry Bowen, of Adrian; first lieutenant, Willard Stearns, of Franklin; second lieutenant, Clark W. Decker, of Adrian. This regiment was organized at Kalamazoo and was mustered in Dec. 10, 1863. It left the state the same day for Covington, Ky., and was engaged in scouting in February and March. It was in a skirmish at West Liberty in April, and then moved to Louisa, Ky., forming part of the First brigade, First division, Army of the Ohio. It was in engagements at Pound Gap, Hazel Green, Mount Sterling, Lexington, Georgetown and Cynthiana. The fight at Mt. Sterling -,vas severe, the enemy being routed, and at Cynthiana the Eleventh was in the charge which destroyed the enemy's line and scattered his forces. Engagements followed at Point Burnside, McCormick's Farm, Laurel Mountain, Bowen's Farm, Saltville, Sandy Mountain, and in Western Virginia. At Saltville the brigade to which the Eleventh was attached carried the main work, the regiment losing eighty-six in killed, wounded and missing. Compelled to withdraw, Lhe regiment acted as rear-guard and the following day it was cut off and surrounded by 4,000 cavalry, but hewed its way through the opposing lines in a hand-to-hand fight of an hour. It encamped at Mt. Sterling and was engaged during November in clearing the country of guerrillas and engaging in skirmishes with them at Hazel Green, McCormick's Farm, Moiristown, State Creek, Mt. Sterling, Church River, Russellville, Cobb's Ford, Bristol, Paperville, Abingdon, Wytheville, Mt. Airy, Marion, Seven-mile Ford, Saltville and Jonesboro. At Bristol the regiment took a number of prisoners and a large quantity of stores and at Abingdon it fought a brigade, capturing the enemy's artillery and 250 prisoners. It was in a running fight from Marion to Wytheville, twenty-four miles, when the enemy's wagon train and artillery were taken. At Wytheville the command drove the home guards to the mountains and captured 75,000 rounds of fixed artillery ammunition.; 5,000,000 musket cartridges, 75 wagons, 6,ooo blankets, S cannon, 33 caissons, large quantities of stores, and destroyed a large amount of property. At Saltville it aided in the destruction of the saltworks, machinery, utensils (including 2,000 kettles), buildings and wells, three forts, two arsenals filled with ammunition, thirteen cannon and caissons, five locomotives, eighty cars, depots and other buildings. In January, 1865, the regiment was engaged at Mt. Sterling and Hazel Green. It next fought at Flemingsburg, Boone, Yadkin River, Mount Airy, Hillsville, Salem, Christians burg, Jonesboro, Danbury, Statesville, Salisbury, and in a number of minor engagements. At Anderson Court House the last remnant of the Confederate treasury was destroyed. The regiment captured Jefferson Davis's cavalry escort and then moved to Hartwell and Asheville, N. C., Greeneville, Tenn., Strawberry Plains, Knoxville and Pulaski, where it was consolidated with the Eighth Michigan cavalry, July 20, 1865. It was in service at that point until Sept. 22, when it was mustered out.
Did space permit, it would be a pleasure to include the names and service. of the "men who bore the guns," many of whom performed feats of daring and services of incalculable value to the cause,, wholly prompted by the innate desire for national preservation, and without the hope of official reward. Some even declined promotion on the conscientious ground that they would then be serving for the emoluments and honors of office, while the charge would be groundless if the salary remained at thirteen dollars a month ! Such conduct as this, it seems, should be a sufficient refutation of the latter-day doctrine that greed is the only incentive to . human exertion. There were representatives of Lenawee county in nearly every regiment organized in Southern Michigan and Northwestern Ohio, either by original enlistment, transfer, or promotion, and wherever they were, and by whatever organization they were known, the famous Wolverines always performed their duty, and reflected honor upon themselves and credit upon the noble state which they represented.
In the spring of 1898 came the declaration of war between the United States and Spain, and the equipment of an army and navy to combat the haughty Spaniard. In the settlement of this trouble Lenawee county responded with old-time vigor and enthusiasm. The noble sons of patriotic sires promptly offered their services in the cause of liberty and performed their duty with commendable devotion. The response was so universal over the land that many were disappointed in not reaching the scene of action, but they had shown their devotion to country and sympathy with the downtrodden and oppressed. The Lenawee county boys, mostly members of Company 13, of the Thirty-first Michigan infantry, were off to the rendezvous at the earliest opportunity. They returned after a few months of service, but were dissatisfied that they could not have done more. A grand reception was accorded to the company on its return, and then its members resumed the thread of peaceful life. A few Lenawee county men reached the scene of action in the Philippines, where they rendered valiant service and proved their worthiness on every field. The officers of Company B, of the Thirty-first Michigan infantry were: Captain, James M. Holloway; first lieutenant, Edwin A. Wells; second lieutenant, Myron C. Bond. Laverne Wilcox, of Adrian, and George Fletcher, of jasper, were the only Lenawee county boys who contracted disease in the service and died.