History of Lenawee County, Michigan - Chapter 7, Politics and Official Honors



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CHAPTER VII. POLITICS AND OFFICIAL HONORS. Lenawee County received its first white inhabitants the same year (1824) that the remarkable presidential contest occurred between Jackson, Adams, Clay, and Crawford. The administration of Mr. Monroe had been so pacific and conciliatory in its measures that the party lines previously existing had become almost obliterated, and it appeared to be conceded that his policy had established "an era of good feeling." Means of communication with the outer world, inhabited by civilized people, were then so limited, and newspapers and documents so scarce and difficult to obtain that the political excitement among the new settlers was not sufficient to disturb neighborhood tranquility. But when the election, tinder the forms of the Constitdtion, was transferred to the House of Representatives; after the meeting of Congress on the first Monday in December, 1824, and when it became known that, by the decision of the :Mouse, the popular voice had been disregarded by the choice of John Quincy Adams, and intelligence of the result finally penetrated the fastnesses of the dwellers in the Michigan wilderness, it aroused a feeling that had a tendency to form political classification. But sharp party lines were not drawn for many years, and even when they were they did not embrace candidates for the popular suffrage of a lesser grade than federal and state officers, rarely extending to candidates for merely local positions. In process of time, however, political organizations were formed upon a broader basis, and they contested for possession of the smaller official plums, making the organization of political parties, although occasionally broken, generally more compact. Until 1834 the party adverse to the Democratic organization had been known as National Republicans and Anti-Masons, but in that year all that were opposed to the Democracy formed a coalition and changed their name to Whig, and tinder this banner fought their battles until 1854, when a fusion between the Free-Soilers and Know-Nothings was made, and both elements combined under the name of Republican. There existed, however, for many years in Lenawee County, a small but brave and earnest body of Abolitionists, who Were denounced and persecuted by both Democrats and Whigs, who vied with each other in making assaults upon "the incendiary Abolitionists." But it was only upon this common ground that the two powerful parties would make common warfare. The leaders of the opposition to those who would abolish the institution of slavery called themselves "conservative" men who deemed it their duty to emphasize their dislike of fanatics who advocated freedom for the black man as well as the whites. The '`conservative" men of that day decried such agitation, because, they said, "it disturbed business interests." They were the psychological ancestors of those vainglorious men of today who oppose every measure of reform that appears abstruse to their benighted reasoning powers. They seem to think that the Emancipation Proclamation was the culminating achievement of this Christian civilization, and that the enemies of human progress were all slain when the Demon of chattel slavery perished. Reasoning thus, they do not consider it their duty to study proposed reform measures, and in the conflict of opinion their weapons are sneers and vituperation instead of reason and logic. But this is a digression, and we will return to the proper subject. The first election in the County took place in Tecumseh, in 1825, when only fourteen votes were cast for the Hon. Austin E. Wing, for delegate to Congress. He was twice elected to Congress, and served from 1825 to 1829. Although Mr. Wing was closely connected with the first settlement of Lenawee County, he never became a resident, his home being in Monroe he had filled the office of private secretary to Governor Cass, with ability, and possessed rare qualities for organization and public service, He took a lively interest in the early growth and development of Lenawee County. He personally entered the land for the firm of Wing, Evans & Brown, upon which the village of Tecumseh now stands. He lived many years and saw the County completely settled and become dotted with beautiful cities and villages, and prosperous and happy farm homes. He died at Cleveland, -Ohio, in August, 1869. About the time that Lenawee County was rapidly increasing her population, during the first years of her existence as a separate division, and as a component part of the new state of Michigan, the country experienced one of those financial panics which so frequently shake commercial communities to their very center. As this had an important influence upon the political events of that time, it may be well to enter briefly into the details in so far as they relate to political action. In December, 1816, a new United States bank was chartered for a term of twenty years. This institution, located at Philadelphia, became in the course of years the center of business interest. It was the custodian of the moneys of the government, and the government was the owner of a considerable amount of its stock; it' could and did control the rates of discount. It could make or break private or state banks by a bestowal or withdrawal of its confidence and as it controlled the pockets of the nation, so it began to also control its opinions and political action. President Jackson attacked the bank in his first annual message in x829, and returned to the attack in the annual messages of 1830 and 1831. Notwithstanding the hostility of the President, Congress, in July, 1832, passed an act granting the bank a new charter. This act the President promptly vetoed, but its failure produced no immediate effect, as the old charter did not expire until December, 1836. The Presidential campaign of 1832 was then in progress. Jackson was nominated for re-election, and the re-chartering of the bank was one of the issues between parties at that election, but Michigan being yet in its territorial stage of existence, the inhabitants of Lenawee County could take no part in the settlement of the vexed controversy. Jackson was re-elected, and with him a House of Representatives sympathizing with his financial views. In his message of that year the President recommended the removal of the deposits and the sale of the bank stock belonging to the United States. So thoroughly entrenched was the bank in the business interests of the country that Congress dare not make the attack. But so soon as Congress had adjourned, the President directed the secretary of the treasury to remove the deposits. The secretary, William J. Duane, hesitated. There were about $10,000,000 of government funds in the bank; the bank loans amounted to $60,000,000, and were so distributed as to effect almost every hamlet in the nation, and the secretary had not sufficient courage to jostle the monster that might easily crush whole parties, and whose destruction, if accomplished, would bring ruin on almost every business house, and whose dying throes would be felt in every household in the land. The President at length made a peremptory order to remove the money, and to deposit it in certain state banks. The secretary promptly refused, and the President as promptly removed him and appointed Roger B. Taney, of Maryland, to the secretary's office. The business community was startled, and prophecies of widespread disaster freely made, but an iron hand was at the helm of state, and nothing would stay its work or change its purpose. The, new secretary commenced the removal in October, 1833; the greater part was removed within four months, and the entire work was completed within nine months. The designated state banks received the deposits, and to relieve the threatened financial disaster, discounted freely. Indeed, the deposit of the national funds among several rival banks stimulated reckless speculation.' Each bank- was anxious to do more business than its neighbor, and therefore in every possible way made money easily obtainable. They believed the money would remain until needed by the government for ordinary governmental purposes, and therefore treated it as so much capital, and increased their circulation in proportion to the deposit. Money was plenty, and: business was unduly stimulated. Internal improvements and all the industrial pursuits were inordinately revived, and reckless speculation, especially in real estate, was largely indulged in, and in 1$36 it amounted to a mania. Says Lossing: "A hundred cities and a thousand villages were laid out on broad sheets of paper, and made the basis of vast moneyed transactions." If Jackson was an enemy of extravagance he also was a firm believer in the doctrine of State Rights, and during his administration the doctrine was strictly and severely enforced. He was not prepared, like Calhoun, to carry it to the length of nullification and secession, but so far as he believed in it, he unrelentingly applied it to the affairs of the general government. By that code all the receipts of the government, in excess of its expenditures on the narrowest basis, belonged to the states, and to them it should go. Accordingly, in January, 1836, Congress directed the Secretary of the Treasury to divide the money in excess of $5,000,000 among the several states, on the basis of their representation in the House of Representatives. Notwithstanding this portent of the gathering storm, it was unheeded, and reckless speculation continued and increased into madness. In the midst of this widespread financial dissipation (July 11, 1836) the President caused a treasury order to be issued, directing that all duties should be paid in gold and silver coin. A deputation of New York merchants waited on him to secure its rescission. But he was inexorable. He told them hard times were produced by reckless expenditure and speculation, and any measure that would stop the flood-tide of extravagance, although productive of present distress, would eventually be of service to the country. It was in times such as these that the state of Michigan first participated in the election of a President of the United States. In Lenawee County Van Buren received 558 votes and Harrison 261. But to continue the story of the panic of 1837, which latterday apostles of a certain economic theory delight in attributing to the compromise tariff law of 1833. At length the time fixed by Congress for the distribution of the government funds arrived. More than a year had elapsed since the passage of the act gave notice to the banks and the business community to prepare for the effects of shortened capital, but no preparation had been made. On the contrary, recklessness had increased in proportion as the time for the preparation shortened. In proportion as- the currency was converted into coin for payment to the Government; the amount available for business purposes was decreased. Discounts could not be obtained, and therefore business could not be continued. , In the months of March and April, 1837, there were failures in the city of New York aggregating more than $100,000,000. A deputation of merchants waited on Mr. VanBuren, then just seated, in the Presidential chair, and asked him to defer the collection of duties on imports, to rescind the treasury order of July II, 1836, and to call: an extra session of Congress. He refused, and on May 10 all the banks of New York suspended payment, and the banks of the entire country followed their example. Such conditions in the financial and industrial world could not fail to have a great influence in American politics, and 1840 was a year of great political excitement. The opposition to the Jackson Democracy had been out of power for twelve years, and extraordinary efforts were made to regain it. Contrary to expectation, the times had not improved since 1837, but were constantly growing worse. In 1838, and even in 1839, men had been kept at work, and although paid in "wild-cat" money, they were busy, and consequently had no time to grumble. But now nearly the whole working class was out of employment, discontented, and complaining. The Whigs affected to believe the hard times were all chargeable to the destruction of the United States Bank, and seemed to think that with such an institution in the country, extravagance and patent violation of the laws of trade would go unpunished. They had again nominated General Harrison for the Presidency, and adopting coon skins, hard cider, and log cabins as their insignia, and crying "Corruption" at every breath, they made the campaign. On their banners was the inscription, "Two dollars a day and roast beef under Harrison, 6/ cents a day and sheep's pluck under VanBuren." The campaign, although perhaps greater in the intensity of excitement, was not unlike that of 1896 in some respects. The idle, the dissolute, and the unthinking rushed after the banner that promised so much, and joined in the hue and cry against the party in power. The material for large processions was at hand, for mechanics and laborers had little else to do. Those who could sing were employed in vociferating log-cabin songs, and those who could not sing hallooed themselves hoarse in the praise of hard cider, Tippecanoe and Tyler too. The Adrian Brass Band, which had been organized in 1838, went to Fort Meigs, Ohio, with a Large Lenawee County delegation, to attend the great Harrison mass meeting held at that place. Gen. Joseph W. Brown was in command of the Michigan delegation at this great meeting, and held an umbrella over General Harrison while the latter was speaking. The VanBuren administration was literally swept out of existence, and Whig partisans retired to winter quarters to dream of the two dollars a day and roast beef that awaited them tinder Harrison's administration. Lenawee County voted as follows: VanBuren, 1,865; Harrison, 2,117. Mr. Birney, the Abolition candidate, seems to have received no votes in the County. In 1844, the Abolitionists had no candidate and the Free-Soil party was not then in existence. For President, Polk received 2,272 votes, and Clay 2,178. In the Presidential contest of 1848, a convention of FreeSoilers, held at Buffalo, N. Y., placed in nomination a candidate for. the Presidency and adopted a chart of principles satisfactory to nearly all the Abolitionists and to many others of the old parties. In Lenawee County the vote stood: Lewis Cass (Dem.), 2,171 votes; Zachary Taylor (Whig), 1,886; Martin VanBuren, (FreeSoil), 795. Majority for Cass over Taylor, 285. 1852-Franklin Pierce (Dem.), 2,8S7 votes; Winfleld Scott (Whig). 2,418; John P. Hale (Free-Soil and Abolition), 640. Majority for Pierce Over Scott, 439. Between this and the quadrennial election following the very name and machinery of the Whig arty had passed out of existence. 1854-At the State election in Lenawee County, for governor, Kinsley S. Bingham (Republican) received 3,197 votes, and John S. Barry (Democrat), 2,379 votes. The majority of the Republican ticket was elected, although the plurality for Mr. Bingham was the 6 largest. This was the first instance in the political history of Lenawee County when the regular nominees of the Democrat party were entirely overthrown in a strictly party contest. 1856-James Buchanan (Dem.), 2179 votes; John C. Fremont (Rep.), 4,499. Majority for Fremont over Buchanan, 1,720. Lenawee County, it will be observed, gave a heavy vote for the Republican ticket, increasing its vote of two years before by more than forty per cent. 186o-This contest terminated the "irrepressible conflict" between the Free and Slave states, as Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward had declared several years previous that it was destined to become, and, so far as law could make it so, placed the former master and slave on the terms of civil equality. Lenawee County sustained her Republican majority, giving to Lincoln (Rep.) a vote of 5,080, to Douglas (Dem.) a vote of 3,510, making the majority for Lincoln over the vote of his chief competitor, 1,570. 1864--Lincoln's (Rep.), vote, 4,780, McClellan's (Dem.), 3,632. 1868-Ulysses S. Grant (Rep.), 6,205 votes, and Horatio Seymour (Dem.), 4,623, resulting in a majority for Grant of 1,582. 1872-At, the November election of this year, Grant received a majority of 2,445 votes over Greeley, thus proving conclusively that the latter was not very popular with Lenawee County Democrats. The vote stood: Grant, 5,788; Greeley, 3343. Indeed the candidacy of Mr. Greeley seems to have effected the vote for governor also, for in 1870 the Republicans had but 782 majority in the County for governor, and in 1872 they had 2,307. 1876-Hayes (Rep.), 6,540; Tilden (Dem.), 4,564. 188o-Garfield (Rep.)', 6,451; Hancock (Dem.), 5,246. 2884-Blaine (Rep.), 5,827; Cleveland (Dem.), 5,572. i888-Harrison (Rep.), 6,475; Cleveland (Dem.), 5,671. 1892-Harrison( Rep.), 5,833;- Cleveland (Dem.), 5,592. 1896-McKinley (Rep.), 6,863; Bryan (Dem.), 6,300. Igoo-McKinley (Rep.), 6,847; Bryan (Dem.), 5,966. 1904-Roosevelt (Rep.), 7;891 ; Parker (Dem.), 3334. I9o8-Taft (Rep.), 6,607; Bryan (Dem.), 4,704. The figures of 1904 represent the largest vote and majority ever given to a political party in Lenawee County. And, though there can be no doubt that the Republicans have a comfortable majority in the County, the presidential election of 1904 is not a fair criterion by which to judge its size. It is but stating a truth in history to say that Mr. Parker was not a popular candidate with the "rank and file" of the Democratic, party, and especially was this true after he exhibited his weak conception of the coinage question. With such an independent character as Mr. Roosevelt in the field, many Democrats considered it an opportune time to consign Mr. Parker, "irrevocably," to the shades of political oblivion. As a further evidence of this fact, notwithstanding the great majority for Roosevelt, the vote for governor in the same year was as follows: Warner (Rep.), 5,953; Ferris (Dem.), 5,461, a Republican majority of only 492. It will be seen, in the statistics given, that, since 1852 the Republican candidate in Presidential years has carried the County, and that the Democrat vote reached high-water mark in 1896, when it registered at 6,300. In that campaign Mr. Bryan's wonderful personality, magnetic force, and matchless oratory, contending for a platform of principles that was unequivocal in meaning and clear in expression, succeeded in arousing an interest in political affairs to an extent seldom if ever witnessed before. In Lenawee County every district schoolhouse became a political forum, and interest in everything else waned while the "Battle of the Standards" was in. progress. The vote given to Mr. Bryan was considered the greatest achievement that has ever been accomplished by the Democrats of Lenawee County. In local and state affairs, however, an independent spirit has been manifested more or less ever since the close of the Civil war. The voters of the County have been generally given 'to "scratching" their tickets, and it has been difficult to estimate results, particularly as regards candidates for County offices, until the votes have been officially canvassed, and-members of the minority party have frequently been incumbents of official positions. In 1874, the Democratic candidate for governor received a majority of thirty-two votes in the County, and they were also successful in the state elections of 18go, 1898 and 19o8. With these exceptions, however, the Republican candidates for governor have carried the County at every election from and including 1854. The writer has attempted to perfect an official list of Lenawee County, including national, state, and county officers, from the admission of Michigan to statehood to 1808, and also to include with the list, biographical -matter concerning some of the gentlemen who have borne the official honors. In some instances the favored ones have passed away, leaving neither "kith nor kin" to preserve their records, while in others, either from indisposition, churlishness, cupidity, ignorance, or some other cause those who could have done so have manifested no disposition to furnish the required information. Nothwithstanding these difficulties, considerable information is here presented concerning residents of Lenawee County who have held official honors. For court judges and officers, see chapter on Bench and Bar, and the biographical department of this worth also contains additional information. Governors.-From March 4, 1847, to Jan. 3, 1848, William L. Greenly; 1877 to 1881, Charles M. Croswell. William L. Greenly was born' at Hamilton, Madison County, New York, Sept. 18, 1813. He attended school at Hamilton academy until the age of fourteen, then attended Union college, where he graduated at the age of eighteen. He commenced the study of law with Stower & Gridley, in Hamilton, where he remained three years. He was admitted to the bar at Albany, N. Y., in the fall of 1833; he practiced law at Eaton, Madison County, until October, 1836, and then, on October 20th, he came to Adrian and commenced the practice of law. In the fall of 1837 he was nominated for the legislature to fill a vacancy, and was defeated by James Fields. In the year of 1838 he was nominated and elected state senator in the district composed of Monroe, Lenawee, and Hillsdale counties, by a large majority, re-elected in the fall of 1841, and served two years more. In January, 1846, he was elected lieutenant-governor, and served as such until March 4, 1847, when by the resignation of Governor Felch, he became acting governor of the state of Michigan, which position he occupied until' Jan, 3, 1848. He was afterward elected three times justice of the peace, and held the office for twelve years. In 1858 he was elected mayor of the city of Adrian for one year. Charles M. Croswell was born at Newburg, Orange County, New York, October 31, 1825. At the early age of seven years he was orphaned by the death of his father, who was accidentally drowned in the Hudson River, at Newburg, and, within three months preceding that event, his mother and only sister had died thus leaving him the sole surviving member of the family, without fortune or means. Upon the death of his father he went to live with an uncle, who, in 1837, emigrated with him to Adrian. At sixteen years of age, the future governor commenced to learn the carpenter's trade, and worked at it very diligently for four years, maintaining himself, and devoting his spare time to reading and the acquirement of knowledge. In 1846, he began the study of law, and-was appointed deputy clerk of Lenawee County. The duties of this office he performed four years, when he was elected register of deeds, and was re-elected in 1852. In 1854, he took part in the first movements for the formation of the Republican Party, and was a member and secretary of the' convention held at Jackson in that year, which convention put in the field the first Republican state ticket in Michigan. In 1855, he formed a. law partnership with the late Chief-Justice Cooley, which partnership continued until the removal of Judge Cooley to Ann Arbor. In 1862, Mr. Croswell was appointed city attorney of Adrian. He was also elected mayor of the city in the spring of the same year, and in the fall was chosen to represent Lenawee County in the state senate. He was reelected to the senate in 1864, and again in 1866. Among various reports made by him, one adverse to the re-establishment of the death penalty, and another against a proposition to pay the salaries of state officers and judges in coin, which then commanded a very large premium, may be mentioned. He also drafted the act ratifying the Thirteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, for the abolishment of slavery, it being the first amendment to the instrument ratified by Michigan. In 1863, from his seat in the state senate he delivered an elaborate speech in favor of the Proclamation of Emancipation issued by President Lincoln, and of his general policy in the prosecution of the war. In 1867, he was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention, and chosen its presiding officer. In 1868, he was chosen an elector on the Republican Presidential ticket, in 1872, was elected a representative to the state legislature from Lenawee County, and was chosen speaker of the house of representatives. At the close of the session of that body his abilities as a parliamentarian, and the fairness of his rulings were freely and formally acknowledged by his associates, and he was presented with a superb collection of their portraits handsomely framed. He was also, for several years, secretary of the state board for the general supervision of the charitable and penal institutions of Michigan, in which position, his propositions for the amelioration of the condition of the unfortunate, and the reformation of the criminal classes, signalized the benevolence of his nature and the practical character of his mind. In 1876, the general voice of the Republicans of the state indicated Mr. Croswell as their choice for governor, and, at the state convention of the party in August of the same year, he was put in nomination by acclamation, without the formality of a ballot. At the election in November following, he was chosen to the high position for which he had been nominated, by a very large majority over all opposing candidates. He was renominated by acclamation in 1878 and was re-elected, serving from 1877. HISTORICAL_ 161 to 1881. He vetoed many bills, none of which was passed over his veto. He was an attendant of the Presbyterian Church at Adrian, and enjoyed in private life the respect and esteem of the people of Michigan. He died suddenly at Adrian, December 13, 1886. Lieutenant-Governor.-From January 5, 1846, to March 4, 1847, William L. Greenly. State Treasurer.-From January 13, 1842, to 1845, John J. Adam. John J. Adam, one of the most prominent among the early settlers of Lenawee County, on July 4, 1826, when a youth of eighteen years, set sail from his native Scotland in a brig of less than 150 tons burden, and landed in the city of Baltimore, Md., forty-six days afterward, having been forty-two days out of sight of land. He was born in the city of Paisley, Scotland, October 30, 1807. His father departed this life when John J. was a child of two years, and after that event the mother left Paisley, and returning to her native County-Dumfriesshire-located in Closeburn Parish for the purpose of educating her two sons. They were for some time students at the celebrated Wallace Hall Academy and completed their studies in the University of Glasgow, where they were graduated with honors. The first employment of John J. Adam after his arrival in this country was that of a teacher of languages and mathematics in Meadville Academy, Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Then migrating to Lenawee County, he was soon recognized as a valuable accession to the intelligent and able company of men who had cast their lot among the pioneers. Upon the calling together of the convention for the framing of the state constitution, in 1835, he was elected one of the eight delegates from this County. The succeeding three years he was secretary of the state senate, and gathered more laurels as an indefatigable worker and intelligent and active officer. In 1839 he was elected a member of the Michigan legislature, serving one term in the house, and at its expiration was elected to the senate. In January, 1842, he was elected state treasurer, which position he held more than three years, until his resignation, at the request of Governor Barry, to accept the position of auditor general to complete the official term of Mr. Hammond, resigned. After serving another term in legislature he again accepted the office of auditor-general, which he held until 1851. He had lived upon his farm during these years and until 1853, when he removed with his family into Tecumseh village. In the last year above mentioned he became connected with the Michigan Southern railroad during the construction of the Jackson branch and the Three Rivers road, acting as agent, and was subsequently appointed to the same position for the Air Line, the Detroit, and the Toledo roads, which were being built by the same company. At the completion of these he was appointed auditor of the company, which position he held until his resignation, in 1868. The people during this time had borne in mind his efficient service as a legislator, and in 1871-72 he was again elected to the House of Representatives. Upon the establishment of the University of Michigan, in 1837, Mr. Adani was a member of the first board of regents, and was re-appointed the following year. In the meantime he had established a branch of the university at Tecumseh, and resigned his place in the regency in favor of Dr. Patterson, who resided at the place mentioned. Auditors-General.-From May 24, 1845, to January 28, 1846, and from May 9, 1848, to 1851, John J. Adam; 1861 to 1863, Langford G. Berry; 1867 to 1875, William Humphrey. Langford G. Berry was born in Berlin, N1. Y., June 19, 1812. He settled in Adrain in October, 1835. He was a real-estate dealer, then went into the banking business, and became one of the most prominent private bankers in the state. He was a representative in the state legislature, session of 1857. He was elected auditor general in 186o as the Republican candidate. He was appointed collector of the First district of Michigan, with head-quarters at Detroit, prior to the expiration of his term as auditor-general. He held the position some time and resigned. The later years of his life were spent in Arkansas,-where he died June 3, 1878. Gen. William Humphrey was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., June 12, 1828, and came to Michigan with his parents in x838. He spent his childhood and youth on a farm, and depended for his education on the district schools of Hillsdale County, until 1848, when he went to Geneva, N. Y., where he had the advantage of two school years, afterward attending a commercial institute at Cleveland, Ohio. In the fall of 1857 he came to Adrian and engaged in the mercantile business as a clerk, and here he remained, with the exception of one year, when he taught school at Williamsport, Pa., until the first call for troops in 1861, at the breaking out of the Civil war. On May 25, 1861, he was mustered in at Fort Wayne, Detroit, as captain of Company D, Second Michigan infantry, receiving his commission from Governor Austin Blair, April 25, x861. He took part in the first battle of Bull Run. In 1862 he served in the peninsular campaign, in Gen. Phil. Kearney's division, and he also engaged in the second battle of Bull Run. In the fall of 1862 he took part in the battle of Fredericksburg, under General Burnside. In 1863 he accompanied Burnside to Kentucky, and the following May was commissioned as colonel of the Second Michigan infantry. In June he was ordered to Vicksburg, taking part in the siege, and he also took part in Sherman's campaign against Jackson, Miss. He took part in various skirmishes about Knoxville; and at Fort Saunders, where Longstreet was repulsed with fearful loss, he had command of a brigade. In the spring of 1864 his regiment was ordered to the Potomac, and he served in Grant's campaign against Lee, participating in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and all the engagements up to October, when he was discharged on account of expiration of service. During the summer of 1864, a part of the time he had command of a brigade and was brevetted brigadier-general to date from July 30, 1864. After his retirement from the army and return to Michigan, -General Humphrey purchased the Daily and Weekly Watchtower of Adrian, taking possession Saturday, September 9, 1865, and on the following Monday, September 11, issued the Daily Times. He continued as one of its editors until 1866, when he was elected auditor-general of Michigan, and upon taking office abandoned all editorial work. He filled the office of auditor-general for four successive terms, and in 1875 was appointed warden of the Michigan state prison at Jackson, occupying this position for eight years. In 1883 be became interested as a partner in the Adrian Brick and Tile Machine Company. In 1880 he was appointed postmaster at Adrian by President Harrison, and held the office for four years. He died at his home in Adrian, Jan. 12, 1898. Attorneys-General.-From March 21, 1837, to March 4, 1841, Peter Morey; 1905 to 1911, John E. Bird. Peter Morey was born in Cazenovia, N. Y., in 1798, was educated at Hamilton, academy, studied law and was admitted in 1831. He practiced four years in the state of New York, and in 1835 r& moved to Tecumseh. In 1837 he removed to Detroit, having been appointed attorney-general of the state, which office he held four years. After the expiration of his term of office he returned to Tecumseh, where he continued in practice for many years, finally going to Marion, Ohio, to live with his daughter, until his death in the fall of 1881. He was a fine scholar, a courteous old school gentleman, an able and energetic lawyer, in politics a Democrat. Members of Congress.-From 1861 to 1871, Fernando C. Beaman ; 1883 to 1887, Nathaniel B. Eldredge ; 1899 to 1903, Henry C. Smith. Hon. Fernando C. Beaman was born in Chester, Windsor County, Vermont, June 28, 1814. He lived at home until the death of his parents which occurred in his fifteenth year. At that time he had received a good common school education, afterward working himself through Franklin Academy, of Malone, N. Y., teaching school seven winters and three summers. He went to Rochester in 1836, and in the following year entered the law office of Haight & Elwood, subsequently reading also with William S. Bishop, a prominent member of the bar of that city. In 1838 he came to Michigan, and early in 1839 was admitted to the bar in Lenawee County, first settling in Manchester, Washtenaw County, where he entered upon the practice of his profession. Later in the same year he moved to Tecumseh, and formed a partnership with Hon. Consider A. Stacy. In 1843 Mr. Beaman was appointed prosecuting attorney of Lenawee County, by Governor Barry, and removed to Adrian, where he resided until his death. He was twice re-appointed to this position, holding it for six years. In this time he formed a law partnership with the Hon. A. R. Tiffany, and later he became a member of the law firm of Beaman, Beecher & Cooley, composed of himself, the late Hon. Robert R. Beecher, and the Hon. Thomas M. Cooley, afterwards a justice of the Supreme Court. Subsequently Judge Cooley dropped out of the firm, the remaining members continuing until after Mr. Beaman's election, in 1856, as judge of probate for Lenawee County, which office he held for one term. In 1871, soon after retiring for the first time to private life, he was appointed judge of probate again, to fill a vacancy caused by the death of judge Beecher, and in 1872 and 1876 was reelected to the same office. 'In early life Mr. Beaman was a Democrat of the liberal sort, and afterward, in 1848, became a Free-Soiler, and made a vigorous canvass of Lenawee County in favor of VanBuren and Adams,, the Presidential candidates of the party. In 1854 he attended the Jackson convention, which organized the Republican Party in Michigan, and was one of the vice-presidents of that assembly. He was also a delegate to the national convention at Pittsburg, which met for consultation and paved the way for the organization of the Republicans as a national party. The same year he served as one of the presidential electors for this state, casting his vote for Fremont and Dayton. In 1856 he was also a delegate to the Philadelphia convention which nominated Fremont and Dayton. In i86o judge Beaman was elected to Congress in the Second district, comprising Monroe, Lenawee, Cass, Hillsdale, Branch, and St. Joseph counties, receiving 19,173 votes against 12,699 cast for the Hon. S. C. Coffinberry, of St. Joseph. For four HISTORICAL 165 succeeding and consecutive terms he was re-elected. The year 1862 was when the "Union" movement came so near sweeping the Republicans from their footings, and judge l3eaman only won by 192 majority over Hon. E. J. Penniman, of Plymouth. In 1864 he 'defeated the Hon. David A. Noble, of Monroe, in the same district, by 2,314 majority, in 1866 he was elected over the Hon. J. Logan Chipman by 3,876 majority, and in 1863 was chosen over the Hon. M. I. Mills by 16o2 majority. In none of these years had judge Beaman sought the nomination. In May, 1872, he was elected president of the First National Bank of Adrian, and held the position until the bank went into voluntary liquidation. On November 13, 1879, Mr. Beaman was appointed by Governor Croswell to the exalted office of United States Senator, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Hon. Zachariah Chandler, but owing to ill health did not accept the position, although it was one of the highest encomiums to his ability, fidelity, and personal worth that could be tendered him, coming, as it did, unsought and unexpected. Gov. Kinsley S. Bingham tendered him the appointment of justice of the Supreme Court, to fill the vacancy on the bench, which Mr. Beaman declined. When Senator Chandler was Secretary of the Interior, he tendered Judge Beaman the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, which he also declined. Mr. Beaman died in Adrian, September 27, 1882. Col. Nathaniel Buel Eldredge was horn at Auburn, Cayuga County, New York, March 28, 1813', received an academic education and taught school for several winters, commencing when sixteen years old. At the age of sixteen he was appointed a cadet to the Military Academy at West Point, by President Jackson, but for the reason that his father felt unable to furnish the outfit, he was obliged to decline. At the age of twenty he commenced the study of medicine, under the instruction of his brother, Dr. H. D. Eldredge, and afterward with Dr. Lansing Briggs, attending the medical college at Fairfield, N. Y. After graduating, in October, 1837, he moved to Michigan and settled at Commerce, Oakland County, where he practiced his profession six years. In August, 1843, he moved to Lapeer and formed a co-partnership with Dr. DeLasker Miller, for many years professor in Rush Medical College, of Chicago. He continued the practice of medicine until 1852. He was elected justice of the Peace four times, and was chairman of the board of supervisors of Lapeer County four successive years. He was clerk of the senate of the Michigan legislature in 1845, and a member of the house in 1848, which was the year the legislature first convened at Lansing. In 1852 he was elected judge of probate of Lapeer County, and in 1853 was appointed postmaster at Lapeer. In 1854 Colonel Eldredge was admitted to the' bar, and from that time commenced the practice of law, soon thereafter forming a partnership with the late Charles M. Walker. While they were partners they were twice opposing candidates for prosecuting attorney. In the spring of 1861 Colonel Eldredge was the first man who enlisted from Lapeer County, and C. M. Walker, his partner the second. He raised a company and appointed his partner orderly sergeant. His company was assigned to the Seventh infantry, and before the regiment left the state, in September, 1861, he was promoted to major, and C. M. Walker to quartermaster. Colonel Eldredge was with his regiment at the affair of Ball's Bluff _and Edward's Ferry, on October 21, 1867, and after the disaster wrote home a letter, in which he severely blamed Gen. Charles P. Stone, which letter got into print, and for which General Stone ordered him under arrest. After waiting six weeks without obtaining a trial, he resigned, and Governor Blair, upon his return home, immediately appointed him one of the State Military Board, and in April, 1862, appointed him lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Infantry. He at once joined this regiment, which was then in Tennessee, and was with it in several skirmishes and battles, until his health failed and he resigned in 1863. He moved to Adrian in 1865, and with his old partner, C. M. Walker, commenced the practice of law. In 1870 he was elected mayor of the city of Adrian, and in the fall of the same year was the Democratic candidate for Congress, in the district composed of Wayne, Monroe, Lenawee, and Hillsdale counties. In 1874 he was elected sheriff of Lenawee County. He was always a constant and persistent member of the Democratic party, having held various offices within the gift of his party, and frequently been forced to be a candidate when there was little hope of success. He was elected to the Forty-eighth Congress, receiving 15,257 votes against 14,608 votes for J. K. Boies, being the first Democrat elected in twenty-five years, overcoming 3500 Republican majority, thus making a change of over 4,000 votes. He was his own successor, being elected to the Forty-ninth Congress over Capt. E. P. Allen. While in Congress he was placed on some of the most important committees, such as the committee for the District of Columbia, which is all the government the District has. He was also made chairman of the Committee on Pensions, being the only Congressman from Michigan to receive a chairmanship on the second term. An important committee, it placed him in a position to shape the pension laws, which he went about to do in his own hearty way. He was the oldest man in the Forty-ninth Congress. His death occurred at his home in Adrian, November 27, 1893. State Senators.-Sessions of 1835 and 1836, Olmsted Hough ; 1837, Olmsted Hough and Anthony McKey; 1838, Anthony McKey; 1839, William L. Greenly; 1840, John J. Adam and William L. Greenly; 1841, John J. Adam; 1842-43, William L. Greenly; 1844-45, Michael A. Pattersoin; 1846-47, Rufus Kibbee; 1848, Daniel D. Sinclair; 1849-5o, Fielder S. Snow; 1851, John Barber; 1853, Richard Kent and Fielder S. Snow; 1855-57-58, Perley Bills and Henry M. Boies; 1859, Joel Carpenter and Gideon D. Perry; I86162, William Baker, Jr., and Joel Carpenter; 1863-64, Charles M. Croswell and Thomas F. Moore; 1865-67, Charles M. Croswell and Andrew Howell; 1869-70, John K. Boies and Henry C. Conkling; 1871-72, James P.- Cawley and William S. Wilcox; 1873, Charles E. Mickley; 1875, John K. Boies ; 1877, Roland B. C. Newcomh ; 1879, Richard B. Robbins; 1881-82-83, Brackley Shaw; 1885, Manson Carpenter; 1887, George Howell; 1889, Arthur D. Gilmore; 1891-92-93, James H. Morrow; 1895, Edwin Eaton ; 18gg-19oo-o1, James W. Helme, Jr.; 1907-o9, Fred B. Kline. Olmsted Hough was born in Columbia County, New York, in 1797. He lived with, his parents until he was fourteen years old, when he was bound out to a brother-in-law to learn the trade of carpenter and millwright. When he was eighteen the bought his time. He followed the business until 1830, when he was elected to the New York legislature, on the "Masonic ticket," and served one term. In June, r831, he emigrated to Michigan with his family, and settled on a farm on what was then known as "the trail road," running from Tecumseh to Saline. He was always an active, enthusiastic Democrat in politics, being present and assisting in the organization of the party in this County. At the first state constitutional convention he was elected sergeant-at-arms. He was elected the first state senator of his district after Michigan was admitted to the Union. In 1838 he was appointed by President Martin Van Buren, Register of the State Land Office, then located at Detroit, but resigned when the Whigs came into power, in 1841. In 1844 he was elected sheriff of Lenawee County, and was re-elected in 1846. He was elected by the township of Tecumseh to the board of supervisors for several terms, and was also made chairman of that body. He died in the village of Tecumseh, December 25, 1865. Anthony McKey was born in Delhi, Delaware County, New York, January 3, 1800. When he was about nine years of age his father removed to Chemung County and settled upon a farm, where Anthony remained at work with his brothers until he was about eighteen years old, when he commenced teaching school. In 1826 he came to Michigan, taught school for a time in Monroe,, and in 1828 settled on section 12, in Blissfield (now Deerfield), and was married soon thereafter to Jane Clark, daughter of Dr. Robert Clark, an eminent physician of Monroe. On November 26, 1828, Mr. MeKey was appointed postmaster at Kedzie's Grove (now Deerfield), and held the office without interruption to the time of his death, which occurred at his homestead, January 26, 1849. In 1831 he traveled extensively through the northern portion of the state, often on foot, and sometimes hiring the Indians to transport him from place to place with their ponies or canoes, as circumstances would require, often camping in the woods, with only his compass and trusty rifle for companions. Being postmaster, and not liable to military duty, in 1832 he volunteered to fight Black Hawk, and served until the troops were disbanded. He was an extensive reader and was well informed upon all the topics of the day, was elected supervisor in 1829, re-elected in 1830, '31, '32 and '33, and was again elected in 1844, and he served a part of the year 1848. In the fall of 1836 he was elected State Senator, took his seat January 1, 1837, and he was re-elected for the following term. He was earnestly in favor of and helped to secure the passage of the charter for the Michigan Southern Railroad, was a prominent contractor and surveyor, and assisted in the location and construction of the road to Hillsdale. He was a warm friend of Governor Barry, and rode to Jackson on horseback as a delegate to the convention that nominated the latter for governor of the state. In 1842 he was appointed by Governor Barry, in company with Mr. Higgins, of Detroit, to select land ceded by the general government to the state, tinder act of Congress, approved September 4, 1841, and he entered 33,411 acres of land in the land office at Flint. He was also a warm friend and admirer of General Cass, and was the president of the immense mass meeting at Adrian, in 1848, when General Cass was the principal speaker. He was one of the commissioners and the surveyor appointed by the general government to locate and build the Port Lawrence (now Toledo) and Adrian wagon road, also was one of the surveyors of what is known as the Chicago road, and of the Vistula & Indiana road. In politics Mr. McKey was a Democrat, upheld the Mexican war, and was in favor of the admission of Texas. In religion he was a Presbyterian, active in the church andSabbath school, and at the time of his death, and for years previous an elder of the church. Michael A. Patterson, a representative in 1846 and senator from Lenawee County in 1844-45, was born in Easton, Pa., March II, 1804, and was educated there until early manhood. He studied medicine in the University of Pennsylvania and graduated with honor at the age of nineteen. He practiced in western New York for four years, and then settled in Tecumseh, where he continued in active practice until 11875. He then sought a southern climate for health, and died at Westham Locks, Va., April 17, 1877. He was a regent of the University six years, and held many local offices. Politically he was a Democrat. Rufus Kibbee, senator from Lenawee County in 1846-47, came from the state of New York, and was a physician and druggist at Canandaigua. He removed to Coldwater about 1867 and died there about 1883-4. In politics he was a Democrat. Daniel D. Sinclair, long prominent in the business and social circles in the city of Adrian, was a native of Broadalbin, N. Y., and was born April 116, 1805. He was in early life trained to habits of industry, and when a lad of twelve years went to Albany, N. Y., where he engaged with a grocer, for whom he officiated as clerk for a period of eighteen months. He then apprenticed himself to a merchant tailor, Ira Porter, who was a near neighbor of Martin Van Buren, afterward President of the United States. Two years later Mr. Porter retired from business, but procured for young Sinclair a situation with a firm in Schenectady, where he remained until twenty years of age. In the meantime his father had died, and he subsequently removed with his mother to Livingston County, New York, and engaged in the clothing business three years. In I83o he repaired to Albion, and in company with a partner carried on the clothing business there until October, 1834. He now decided to seek his fortune in the young and rapidly growing Territory of Michigan, and was accompanied on the journey by his bride of a month. Upon reaching Tremainsville, Ohio, however, they were induced to spend the winter there, but in April following, they resumed their journey and took up their residence in Adrian, where Mr. Sinclair associated himself with Daniel Wilkinson, and they continued in the clothing trade until 1838. Mr. Sinclair was then elected justice of the peace, and later County treasurer, holding the latter office two terms. Upon coming to this County he was at once recognized as a man of more than ordinary ability, and after having discharged in a creditable manner the responsibilities which had been already committed to him was, in 1847, elected State Senator and attended the first session of the legislature held at Lansing. In 1849 Governor Ransom commissioned him brigadier-general. In 1850 he was made assistant superintendent of the Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana Railway, which position he held eight years, and was then employed by Pinkerton's Detective Agency until the fall of 1859. In the spring of 186o he was elected supervisor of the Second and Third wards of the city of Adrian, which office he held for a period of eighteen years, and acquitted himself in a manner highly creditable to his good judgment and ability, and to the satisfaction of the people of the city. He had always been interested in the establishment of educational institutions, and in 1867 was elected a trustee of the public schools at Adrian, and served on the board some years. Fielder S. Snow, representative from Lenawee County in 1843, and Senator in 1849-50-53, was born in Ashford, Conn., May 17, 1814. He became a clerk at the age of fifteen, and settled in Clinton, Mich., in 1837. He was a merchant and miller, and in politics a Democrat. He was a leader in public enterprises and was administrator of many estates. For twenty-five years he was a justice of the peace. John Barber, Senator from Lenawee County in 1851, was born in Perham, Mass., in 1792. He emigrated first to Vermont and then to Walworth, Wayne County, New York. Afterward he lived at Marion ,in the same County, where he was a justice of the peace, also clerk of Wayne County for six years, and was an associate judge of the County court. He then became a resident of Clyde, N. Y., and was there a merchant. He settled in Adrian in 1836, and held, among, other offices, those of County clerk and justice of the peace. In politics he was first a Democrat and later a Republican. He died April 15, 1867. Richard Kent was born in Newburyport, Mass., October 30, 1786. He received a good academic education, taught school and practiced surveying several years. He was an early settler in the township of Adrian, where he followed farming, and was senator in 1853. He was also supervisor and held other town offices. He died in 1867. Perley Bills, a native of the Green Mountain State, was born far tip among its eastern hills, near the town of Wilmington, June 5, r8ro. Amid these wild and simple scenes he spent his childhood and youth, and possessing more than ordinary ability, at the early age of nineteen made arrangements to embark in trade at Honesdale, Pa. He had associated himself with a Mr. Whiting, but before they had fairly commenced, the illness of the latter compelled them to abandon the undertaking. Young Bills then went to work as a house carpenter, which occupation he followed during the summer and in winter engaged in teaching school. He finally returned to his native state and spent the summer in Vermont, at the mountain .home of his father. Upon leaving New England again he migrated to Ohio and first engaged in teaching in Medina County. He was of studious habits, desirous of obtaining a good education, and in the spring following joined the preparatory class at the Western Reserve College, where he studied two years, paying his expenses by labor when not in school. He finally returned to Bennington, Vt., spending two years in the seminary there as pupil and tutor and in 1835 retraced his steps to Ohio, becoming a student at Oberlin College. The two years following were spent partly in teaching in an academy at Strongsville, whence he came to Michigan and located at Tecumseh in the spring of 1837. There he established and conducted primary and advanced classes for young men who designed to enter college. He was foremost in encouraging the establishment of schools, and by his own unaided efforts and. constant application to his books, obtained a thorough knowledge of the common law, and in 1842 was admitted to practice in the courts of this state. He had in the meantime been prominent in political affairs, and in 1837 was a delegate to the Young Men's State Convention at Marshall, having in view the organization of a branch of the Whig party. In 1854 he was elected to the state senate, re-elected in 1856, and chosen by the Senate as their Speaker pro tem. In 1867 he was elected a member of the state constitutional convention. Mr. Bills organized the first primary school district in the village of Tecumseh, and was a member of the school board for nearly forty years. In 1861 he instituted the savings bank of P. Bills & Co., and four years later became a director and vice-president of the National Bank of Tecumseh. After the close of this institution, in 1874, he at once organized a bank under the firm name of Bills, Lilly & Co., of which he was made president. Mr. Bills died in 1882. Henry M. Boies was born in Blandford, Mass., January 12, 1818. He came to Michigan in 184o, settling at Hudson, where he was a pioneer merchant of the village. He was president of the village of Hudson in 1854 and 1855, and was state senator from Lenawee County in 1855 and in 1857-58. He was appointed one of the inspectors of the state prison by Governor Blair in 186o. He removed to New York City in 1862, was in the mercantile business there several years, and in 1873 he changed his residence to Chicago, where he established the wholesale grocery house of Boies, Fay & Conkey, continuing at the head of that concern until his death from pulmonary disease, which occurred at Chicago on November 5, i88o. Joel Carpenter was born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, September 3, 1818. He lived with his father on the family homestead until his eighteenth year, when he entered St. Lawrence Academy, where he obtained an ordinary English education. On September 15, 1838, at the-age of twenty, he left his, father's house, and arrived at Blissfield, September 23. During the winter of 1838-39 he taught a district school near the present village of Deerfield, in this County. On June 10, 1839 he entered the office of Halsey & Greenly, in Adrian, as a student of law. He was admitted to the bar April 9, 1842, Justice Fletcher presiding at the court, and returning to Blissfield he opened a law office at that place in the winter of 1842-43. In April, 1850, in company with his brother, David Carpenter, he went into the mercantile business, and two years later, having bought out his brother, he formed a co-partnership with his brother-in-law, the late Marvin L. Stone, in the same business, and after Mr. Stone's death, July 24, 1854, he carried on the business alone until the fall of 1858, when he sold out and again opened a law office. He served as supervisor of and postmaster at Blissfield, enrolling officer, and deputy United States assessor during the Civil war, and was state senator for two terms, beginning January 1, 1859. He introduced and secured the passage of the first general insurance law ever adopted in this state, under which himself and the late Royal Barnum, of Adrian, organized the Michigan State Insurance Company, of Adrian. He was a warm Republican in politics, and was always a strong anti-slavery man. He attended as a delegate from Michigan the great Free-Soil convention, held at Buffalo, August 9, 1848. He was also a- delegate to the celebrated convention held "under the oaks" at Jackson in 1854, which first organized and named the Republican party, and he was one of the alternate delegates-at-large to the Republican national convention in Chicago, in 188o, that nominated Garfield. He died at his home in Blissfield, January 22, 1891. Gideon D. Perry was born in Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, October 25, 1811. He left his father's home when he was nineteen years old. He had been brought tip a. farmer, but after leaving home he commenced teaching and going to school, and so continued until 1833, when he commenced preaching, and was admitted to the Genesee conference of the Methodist Episcopal church. He preached for about eleven years, when, owing to poor health, he was compelled to give it up. In 1843 he came to Michigan and settled on section 26, in Franklin, on a new farm, where he resided the remainder of his life. He was the first to introduce the system of homeopathy in Michigan. In the spring of 1856 he was elected supervisor of Franklin, and every vote polled for supervisor in the township was cast for him. He was elected chairman of the board that year. In the fall of 1856 he was elected a member of the house of representatives of the Michigan legislature. In 1858 he was elected a member of the state senate, and served upon important committees. After taking up his residence in Michigan he preached more or less every year, and during the first few years he officiated at many funerals. William Baker, Jr., was for many years a leading citizen of Lenawee County, and was engaged in the mercantile and other business at Hudson. He was a native of New York, his birth occurring at Ft. Ann, Washington County, October 21, 1818 during his boyhood he attended school, and when it was not in session assisted his father in. the labors of the farm. In 1837 he left the home of his parents and came to Michigan to join an elder brother, who was a civil engineer, and at that time engaged in making railway surveys in southern Michigan. Mr. Baker assisted his brother for some time, but in 1841 he turned his attention to the mercantile trade in Hudson, and from that time until his death he was engaged in that and other branches of business there. Besides his business as a merchant, he was part of the time engaged very extensively in buying and selling stock, grain and lumber, driving the cattle to Toledo for shipment. He was elected to the state senate on the Republican ticket, and in that body he won for himself an honorable record. Thomas F. Moore was born in Peterboro, N. H., October 2, 1819, and in that rugged, hilly country, as he grew to a vigorous manhood, he received a practical education at the district school, supplemented by three terms of diligent study at Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, N. H., and a thorough course of industrial training on the home farm. At the age of eighteen years he left the parental home and sought to carve his own fortune. At first he worked by the month farming, but he took great pleasure in reading, and still pursued his studies, keeping them fresh in his mind by teaching in the winter season. Glowing accounts of the rapidly growing West reached him, and the youth determined to prove their reality for himself. He worked his way along, reaching Erie County, N. Y., but remaining there one year only, he pushed still farther west, and came to Lenawee County in 1839. Being pleased with the country he purchased 16o acres of land from the Government, and though there was much labor to be performed in preparing this land for cultivation, he undertook the task, and in a few years had 100 acres well cleared. He lived there fifteen years and then exchanged this farm for 20o acres in Madison Township, section 20, on which he resided the remainder of his life. He added to his possessions until he was the proprietor of 3oo acres of land, and he had a fine farm, with substantial and commodious buildings, and all the modern appurtenances for conducting a well ordered estate. He represented his district in the legislature in 1861 and the following year, and in the Senate in 1863 and 1864. He took a prominent part in securing the necessary appropriation to arm and equip the brave soldiers who were first sent to the field. For ten years he was superintendent of the poor in Lenawee County, and was chairman of the committee that built the County poor house. He served several years as one of the board of prison inspectors. He also served several years as a member of the board of supervisors from Madison Township, being chairman of the board two terms, and he was vice-president of the First National Bank of Adrian for four years. In politics he was formerly a Republican, but later identified himself with the Prohibition Party and conscientiously upheld its principles. Andrew Howell was born in Seneca County, in the state of New York, on December 18, 1827. He was not yet four years of age when his parents settled in Lenawee County, and here he passed his boyhood upon the farm and in the district school of the neighborhood, until well advanced in young manhood. From 1847 to 185o he pursued his education at Tecumseh, and at the Wesleyan Seminary at Albion, Mich. In the fall of 185o he commenced the study of his profession-the law-at Adrian, in the office of F. C. Beaman and R. R. Beecher, then the leading attorneys of Lenawee County. In 1853 he graduated from the law department of the College of Cincinnati, Ohio, standing first in his class of thirty-three. After graduation he returned to Adrian and commenced the practice of the law in partnership with Judge Beaman, his former preceptor. Later, and in 1855, he joined in a law partnership with Judge R. R. Beecher, with whom he continued in successful practice for many years. While in practice he was three times elected to the office of circuit court commissioner, and for two terms, 1865 and 1867, he represented Lenawee County in the state senate. In 1871 he was appointed by the governor as one of the commissioners to supervise and certify to a new compilation of the laws of the state then lately ordered by the legislature. But this position was soon afterward resigned, and thereupon, in pursuance' of a recent act of the legislature, he was immediately appointed by the governor as special commissioner to prepare general laws for the incorporation of cities and villages in the state. Bills for that purpose were accordingly prepared and submitted by him, were adopted by the legislature at its next session, and they became a part of the general statutes of the state. In 1879 the legislature again ordered a new compilation of the general statutes of the state, and Judge Howell was elected compiler in joint convention of the senate and house, but the measure failing to meet with the approval of the governor, no further action was taken under it. But soon after this he compiled and published, as a work of private enterprise, a complete edition of the general statutes of the state, in force, with copious annotations from the decisions of the Supreme Court. While in practice at the bar judge Howell-also enlarged, revised, and published several editions of "Tiffany's Justice's Guide" and "Tiffany's Criminal Law," both of which he made standard works of practice in Michigan. In the spring of 1881 judge Howell was, upon the nomination of both political parties, elected to the bench of the First judicial circuit. Judge Howell became a member of the Republican Party at the time' of its organization and ever after kept himself closely identified with all its interests. His religious affiliations were with the Presbyterian Church. John K. Boies, a prominent and active citizen of Hudson for many years, was born in Blandford, Hampden County, Massachusetts, December 5, 1828, and he was educated in the Westfield Academy. In 1845 he came west to Oberlin, Ohio, where he intended to study law, but in December he visited his brother, II. M. Boies, who was engaged in mercantile business at Hudson. He decided to enter into business with his brother and make Hudson his home. When he was twenty-one a partnership was formed tinder the name of H. M. Boies & Brother. This firm continued until about 18S7, when the business was sold to a stock company. But the next year J. K. Boies & Co. bought it back and continued to do business at the old corner store for thirty years. In addition to his mercantile interests, Mr. Boies dealt largely in grain, pork, wool, and other kinds of farm produce. In 1855, in company with his brother and Nathan Rude, he started the first bank in Hudson, under the name of Boies, Rude & Co. The bank continued, with changes in the partnership, necessitated by the death of the senior members, and at the death of J. K. Boies in 1891, the Boies State Savings Bank was incorporated and succeeded to the business. Politically Mr. Boies was a staunch adherent and supporter of the Republican Party, and in every campaign devoted his eloquence to its service. He was elected president of the village of Hudson in 1863 and was re-elected in 1867. In 1864 he was elected to the Michigan legislature and was re-elected at the end of his term. In 1868 he was elected to the state senate and was re-elected in 1874. In 1871 he was appointed by Governor Baldwin a member of the State Board of Control of Railroads and served four years. In 1878 he was re-appointed as a, member of that board by Governor Croswell and held the position nine years. In 188o he was appointed by President Garfield a member of the United States Board of Indian Commissioners, serving in this capacity until he resigned in 1885. In the campaign of 1882 he was the Republican candidate for representative in Congress from the Second district of Michigan. He served many years as trustee of the public schools and Congregational church-of Hudson. Mr. Boies died at Washington, D. C., August 21, 1881. Henry C. Conkling was born at Middletown, N. Y., January 26, 1824. He came to Michigan with his parents in 1833, and was brought up on a farm until nineteen years of age. He was clerk in a store in Tecumseh for three years. He went to New York City in 1846 and was employed seven years in a wholesale grocery house. He returned to Tecumseh in 1854, and from 1862 to 1869 was engaged in general grocery and produce business, later being engaged as a railroad transportation agent. In politics he was a Republican. He was County clerk of Lenawee County from 1872 to 1876, and state senator in 1869-70. He was appointed County superintendent of poor in 1879 and filled that position a number of years. William Seward Wilcox was born in the town of Riga, Monroe County, New York, April 25, 1818, and came to Michigan with his brother-in-law, Ira Bidwell, September 18, 1836. Earlier in the same year he had left his Empire State home and came west to Milan, Ohio, where he engaged as clerk in the dry goods store of Mr. Bidwell. That fall Mr. Bidwell removed, his stock of goods from Milan to the then growing village of Adrian, Mr. Wilcox coming with him. The latter remained in Mr. Bidwell's employ until 184o, when he became a partner in the business, continuing four years. In the spring of 18Q4 he commenced business for himself, with a new and suitable stock of dry goods. He was successful in this venture, and remained so engaged ten years, a portion of the time having as partners Justus H. Bodwell and William D. Tolford. In 1854 he sold out to Bodwell, Carey & Clay. He at once engaged in the hardware business and opened a store, the firm being Wilcox & Chappell. This firm continued for about eighteen months, when Mr. Chappell withdrew, and Mr. Wilcox carried on the store until 1867, when his brother became a partner. In 1873 the firm name was changed to Wilcox Bros. & Co., when George A. Wilcox, son of W. S., was taken in as a partner. In 1864 William S. Wilcox was elected to the Michigan legislature, was reelected in 1866, and was chairman of the ways and means committee. He was elected mayor of Adrian in 1865. In 1870 he was elected state senator, and was chairman of the finance committee. In 1869 he-was appointed by Governor Baldwin, state prison inspector, and was at once elected chairman of the board. He was elected president of the Michigan State Insurance Company in 1866, which position he held for seventeen years. In 1863 he was elected president of the Oakwood Cemetery Association, and held the office at the time of his death. He became an active member of the Adrian volunteer fire department in 1841 and continued until the paid department was organized in 1867. He became superintendent of the Baptist Sabbath school in 1839, and for over fifty-one years he faithfully filled that position. In I88o he became interested in banking, and after that time gave most of his attention to the interests of the Commercial Exchange Bank of Adrian. He died in Adrian, September 15, 1893, beloved and respected by all classes of citizens. Charles E. Mickley was born in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, August 26, 1818. He was a youth of fifteen years when he came to Lenawee County, and in company with his mother and brother, his father being deceased, made the journey from Buffalo to Detroit, spending six days on Lake Erie. From the City of Straits they reached Adrian by ox-team when the town was in its infancy and the country around composed of forests, and uncultivated land. He commenced working by the month clearing land. and in the fall of 1836, three years later, began operations on his own purchase. He worked quietly on his farm for'several years, and in the meantime identified himself with the Democratic party. In 1850, when the anti-slavery movement was inaugurated in Adrian, he espoused the cause of liberty for the oppressed and became an active worker for the freedom of the colored race. The Boston Liberator was then being published by William Lloyd -Garrison, and to this Mr. Mickley was a frequent contributor, while he was also frequently called upon as a public speaker in defense of the cause to whose members there were now daily accessions. Upon the organization of the Republican Party, Mr. Mickley at once wheeled into its ranks, and as time passed on his public services were rewarded by his election to the house of representatives of the Michigan legislature. From this he was advanced to the senate and served on various important committees. He was the first to introduce the measure in the legislature for the admission of ladies to the Michigan University, and by almost superhuman efforts succeeded in bringing it to a successful issue. In 1871 he was appointed by Governor Baldwin one of the commissioners for selecting the site for the State Public school, and was chairman of the board until disabled from further duty by illness. Dr. Roland B. C. Newcomb was born in Williamstown, Orange County, Vermont, September 25, 1822. He lived with his father until he was twenty-one, and received a good common school education. In the fall of 1843 he emigrated to Madison, Lake County, Ohio, where he taught the Madison school the following winter. In May, 1844, he became a student in the Western Reserve Teachers' Seminary, at Kirtland, Ohio, where he remained about five months. That fall he commenced the study of medicine in the office of Dr. E. L. Plympton, of Madison. He was without any means, except what he could earn from time to time, and again taught school in Madison to procure money to attend lectures, etc. In the spring of 1847 he went to Columbus, Ohio, and read medicine with Dr. R. L. Howard, where he did the chores and took care of the Doctor's horses for board and tuition for one year, graduating February 22, 1848, at Starling Medical College, of Columbus. On July 20, 1848, he located in Palmyra, Lenawee County, and commenced the practice of medicine. On May 1, 1851, he moved to Blissfield, where he resided the remainder of his life. In addition to his professional duties, he was largely connected with the schools of Blissfield, serving as township school inspector, and eight consecutive years as trustee of the union school board. In 1860 he was elected supervisor of the township of Blissfield. In 1864 he was elected a member of the house of representatives -of the Michigan legislature, and in 1876 he was elected a member of the state senate, serving one term and declining a renomination. He was always an active temperance man and a prominent politician, and he acted with the Republican Party after 1854. Col. Richard B. Robbins was a native of the state of New Jersey, and was born April 27, 1832. From the time he was old enough to hold the plow until sixteen years of age, he worked on a farm, and at that age was apprenticed to a blacksmith and learned his trade. Believing that the West was the place for a young man, he then strapped his worldly effects on his back and started on foot and alone for the then distant state of Ohio. Having been deprived of the advantages of an education, being at that time unable to read or write, and keenly appreciating his need, he entered the school of the Rev. Samuel Bissell, at Twinsburg, Ohio, at which place he spent about five years, paying his way by his own manual labor. In the fall of 1854 he landed in the village of Palmyra, where he spent the winter in teaching, writing and reading Blackstone. The spring following he went to Tecumseh and entered the office of Stacy & Wood, making his home with Dr. Hamilton and doing chores to pay for his board. Subsequently he moved to Adrian and for,some time wrote in the probate office of the Hon. C. A. Stacy, then judge. The Hon. F. C. Beaman succeeding Mr. Stacy as judge of Probate, Mr. Robbins remained in the office as clerk, devoting all his spare time to his legal studies, and he was finally admitted to the bar as attorney, May 2, 1859. In i86o he was elected justice of the peace in Adrian, and was engaged in the discharge of his duties when the Civil war broke out. Beheving that the country needed his services, he obtained a second lieutenant's commission from Governor Blair, with authority to raise a company for the Fourth Michigan cavalry then organizing. He raised his company-and was mustered into the United States service as captain August 13, 1862, going at once with the regiment to the front. He participated in over sixty engagements and skirmishes, including the hard-fought battles of Stone's River, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. At Shelbyville, while leading a charge, he had his horse shot under him, and was complimented in general orders for gallant conduct. He was promoted to major August 23, 1863, and continued on duty with his regiment until May 18, 1864, when, at the head of his battalion, in an engagement near Kingston, Ga., his left arm was shattered and rendered useless by a minie-ball. After spending some time in the hospital, and being permanently disabled from active duty, he was detailed as member of the general. court-martial, then sitting at Jackson, in this state, and was subsequently made commander of the camp in that city, where he remained on duty until the war was over. On March 13, 1865, he was made lieutenant-colonel by brevet for gallant and meritorious services in the action near Kingston, Ga. While at Jackson he was elected justice of the peace in Adrian, serving two terms, his last term expiring July 4, 1873. In 1873 he was elected mayor by a fair majority, in one of the hottest campaigns ever experienced in the city. He was elected to the House of representatives in the state legislature for 1875 and re-elected in 1876. In 1878 he was elected state senator, and in 1881 he received the appointment of United States consul at Ottawa, Canada, where he remained until reheved by the Cleveland administration. He was also, in the spring of 1886, -again elected justice of the peace of the city of Adrian. While a member of the house of representatives he was a member of the Committee on State Affairs and chairman of the Committee on the Liquor Traffic, and as such he advocated the tax and restraining law as the best system that could be obtained in the cause of temperance. Besides discharging the duties of the office of justice of the peace, Colonel Robbins was engaged. as a solicitor of patents and pension attorney. Brackley Shaw was born in Plainfield, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, May 21, 1818, and was a self-made and self-educated man. With his parents in 1825 he moved to Ira, Cayuga County, New York, and in 1835 the family migrated to Michigan, and became pioneers of Lenawee County. They came to Michigan by way of Lake Erie, disembarking at Port Lawrence (now Toledo), Ohio. There the goods were loaded onto wagons, drawn by oxen, and the trip, which consumed two days, through swamps and dense forests to Adrian, was anything but pleasant. The energy and business capacity of Mr. Shaw made him one of the most successful farmers in this community. He had a fine farm of 145 acres, on which he built one of the most beautiful residences in the County, and he at one time owned 40o acres in Dover township. He took an. active part in state and county affairs, and although he never sought office he often commanded the suffrage of his fellow-citizens on account of his well known talent and ability. In 1868 he was elected to the Michigan legislature and served two years. In 188o he was chosen state senator for the Sixth district, and in71882 was re-elected to the same office, serving in all four years. He was president of the Farmers' Association of Lenawee and Hillsdale counties for two years. He was a Whig until the, organization of the Republican party, after which time he supported that party. Arthur D. Gilmore, representative from Lenawee County in 1873-4, and state senator in 1889-go, was born March 3, 1847, in Blissfield, Mich. He attended Adrian college from 1863 to 1866, and entered the Michigan University in 1868, graduating in the law department in 1870. He was appointed clerk of the judiciary committee of the senate of Michigan in 1871. Some time after retiring from the office of state' senator he took up his residence in the city of Toledo.

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published by The Western Historical Society in 1909.

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